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21 Cards in this Set

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Critical perspective on crime

refers to the group of theories that begins with the assumption that structures of power and oppression are the sources of crime (race, class, gender)

Lermert's transition to secondary deviance

primary deviation > social penalties > further primary deviance > stronger penalties and rejection > further deviance >crisis reached in tolerance; stigmatized > strengthening of the deviant conduct as reaction to stigmatizing > ultimate acceptance of deviant status

Retrospective interpretation

once a persons deviance is discovered we reinterpret all of his past actions in light of new info

Liberal conflict theory

-the rules governing a cultural group as conduct norms


-criminalization of weaker groups


-values conflicts that are perceived as threatening to those in authority will lead to the less powerful groups being identified as criminal



Radical conflict theory

-capitalism is the root cause of crime


-young people are forced into economic dependency; marginalized

Differential reinforcement

actual commission of a crime depends on actual and anticipated rewards and punishments

Differential association-reinforcment theory

-social learning theory


-differential association


-definitions


-differential reinforcement


-imitation

Self-derogation theory (social control and social learning)

focuses on self-esteem and combines elements of social learning theory, control theory, strain theory, and labelling theory; motivated to maximize self-esteem

Integrated theory

-integrates strain, social bonding, and social learning theory


-anomie combined with social disorganization and inadequate socialization sets the stage for weak bonds with weak social institutions

Interactional theory

-relationships between delinquent behaviour and other variables are not unified but bidirectional


-bonds themselves are not enough to produce delinquency; has to be learned and reinforced

Interactional theory differs from other integrated models in 3 ways:

-variation in bonds is systematically related to structural variables


-does not assume that causal models are stable over life course; causal influences at different times


-does not assume that causal influences are unidirectional

Four principles of differential oppression

-adults emphasize order in the home/school and children are forced to abide


-adults perceptions establish children as inferior, subordinate, and trouble makers


-the imposition of adults conceptions of order on children often becomes extreme to the point of oppression


-when coercion and force become abuse/neglect children generalize the abuse of authority to other adults

Children adapt to oppression in four ways

-passive acceptance


-exercise of illegitimate, coercive power


-manipulation of peers


-retaliation

Lifecourse theory

-children undergo a succession of role and status changes as they grow older


-transitions and pathways/trajectories



Chivalry hypothesis

women's lesser likelihood than men to be caught and processed; men victimized by women are unlikely to report an men in the justice system are reluctant to prosecute women

Two important issues from feminine discourse

-the generalizability problem which concerns whether theories based on the crimes of men applies to women


-the gender ration problem which concerns the ability of existing theories to explain gender differences in crime

Power control theory

attempts to explain class and gender differences in delinquency by the structure of family relations, whether egalitarian or patriarchal

Girls pressure to care in three ways

-learn to be the major and primary providers of love and nurture


-learn to restrict caring for themselves to looking nice and being nice; don't make a fuss


-learn to make a boyfriend primary object of caring

Postmodernism perspective

-rejects disciplinary boundaries


-truth is contingent an socially constructed


-deconstruct the meanings and social processes associated with crime and justice systems

Deconstruction

a method of interpreting texts, movies, tv, and other cultural symbols and practices

Semiotics

the study of signs and symbols