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76 Cards in this Set

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seasonal work for peasants
Spring- plow lands and prepare for planting
Summer- tend to lands/garden
fall- slaughter and harvest
Peasant Holidays
Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, marriages, baptisms were all celebrated with large feasts
Women's roles
carry and bear children, spin and weave clothes, tend gardens, provide meals, work in fields
Aristocrat's and war, church's stance on war
Church willing to justify violence against peace-breakers and for the cause of Christianity
knighthood and nobility
Aristocratic Women
Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204)- bore children and active role in politics, helped rebel
Blanche of Castile (1188-1252)-ruled France, repelled attempts and catching her son, defeated Henry III "she ruled as a man"
Marriage patterns for nobility
establish alliances with other families, bring wealth, provide heirs
wide age discrepancy
no divorce
Knight
mounted warriors who fought in return for weapons and heeds
Chivalry
ideal of civilized behaviors
Melee
tournaments on horseback and fought with blunted weaponry in a free for all combat
jousting
individual combat between two knights
Trade
increased trade caused money economy to emerge
Commercial capitalism
economic system in which people invested in trade and goods to profit
guilds
groups of similar minded craftsmen, almost like a union
apprentice
one who wants to learn a trade
works under a master craftsman
start around age of ten
not paid, but received room and board
5-7 years of service
journeyman
Worked for wages for other craftsmen
Create a masterpiece to become a master craftsmen
master craftsman
guild members, trained apprentices
Bologna
First European university, coincided with revival of interest in Roman law
promised freedom for students
Paris
First recognized university
Notre-Dame
lecture
latin for "to read"
masters read from texts and provided commentaries
How do you distinguish Nocardia from Actinomyces?
Modified acid fast stain
*Nocardia has mycolic acid

Aerobic & anaerobic culture
*Nocardia do NOT grow anaerobically
*Actinomyces will (FA)
Aquinas
1225-1274
Studied theology at Cologne and Paris
"A Summa of Theology"
dialectical method of scholasticism- pose a question, source opposing views, and conclude with making own decisions
Abelard
1079-1142
taught theology in Paris
furthered scholastic methods
"sic et Non (yes or no)"
Flying Buttress
heavy arched pier of stone built on the outside of walls and distributed weight of vaulted ceilings
Romanesque
"A white mantle of churches"
Made of stone vaults and pillars, dark inside
Gothic architecture
Ribbed vaults and pointed arches
stained glass
flying buttresses
William the Conqueror
1066-1087
treated all of England as a royal possession
Domesday Book
created a strong, centralized monarchy
Plantegenet Kings
created under Henry II
King John I
1199-1216, Henry's son
forced to assent to the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
"great charter"
feudal document
aimed at limiting government practices that affect relations between king and his vassals and between the king and the church
Edward I
1272-1307
began uniting all British Isles into a single kingdom
reestablished monarchial rights
Parliament began to be defined
Capetian Dynasty
had little real power
French
Phillip II
1180-1223
quadrupled income of French monarchy
inaugurated French royal bureaucracy
Louis IX
1226-1270
religious, seen as a saint
attempted to bring justice and ensure individual's rights
Phillip IV
1285-1314
strengthened French monarchy
established efficient royal bureaucracy
French parliament (estates-general)
Reconquista
a sacred mission
reconquest of Muslim lands by Christian rulers and their armies
El Cid
Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar
famous military adventurer
fought both Christians and Muslims
made own Kingdom: Valencia (1094), retaken over by Muslims at his death
Las Navas de Tolosa
crucial battle place in 1212
Alfonso IV crushed Muslim forces with his army of 60000
led to Christian victories over the next 40 years
Mongol Empire
pastoral people
Mongolia
formed clans and tribes
moved westward against Islams
conquered Baghdad and destroyed Abbasid
conquered Russia and worked their way into w. europe
Genghis Khan
"universal ruler"
1162-1227
originally Temuchin
created a powerful military force and devoted himself to fighting
Khubilai Khan
Genghis Khan's grandson
completed conquest of China and established Yuan Dynasty
moved China's capital to Khanbaliq, which became Beijing
Pope Gregory VII
elected pope in 1073, believed he was chosen by God to bring reforms
wanted to restore church freedom by eliminating lay investiture
King Henry IV
1056-1106, King of Germany
had appointed high-ranking clerics as vassals to have them as admins, which was challenged by Pope Gregory VII
Investiture Controversy
immediate cause was a disputed election to the bishopric in Milan
Pope Gregory VII excommunicated King Henry IV, and was later granted absolution
ended by Concordat of Worms in 1122 created by a new king and pope
excommunication
censure by which a person is deprived of receiving the sacraments of the church
"papal curia"
administrative staff of the Catholic Church
composed of cardinals who assist the pope and elect new popes
church hierarchy
Pope and Cardinals
Archbishops (control Archdiocese)
Bishop (control diocese)
Priest (control parish)
interdict
a censure by which a region or country is deprived of sacraments in the Catholic church
indulgences
remission of part or all of the temporal punishment in purgatory due to sin, granted for charitable contributions and other good deeds
purgatory
defined by the Catholic church as a place where souls went after death to be purged of punishment for sins committed in life
Selijuk Turks
group of people that posed a threat to the Fatimids
nomads from Central Asia who converted to Islam
Military mercenaries for Abbasid caliphate
Took over E provinces of Abbasid caliphate
Exert military pressure on Egypt and Byzantines
First Crusade
1096
French warriors made their way into the east, captured Antioch, and made their way down the Palestinian coast. The French reached Jerusalem in 1099. The warriors placed themselves into four crusader states: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem. The crusader states had to operate surrounded by Muslim territories and grew to become dependent on the Italians.
Second Crusade
ended up failing, and Muslim forces recaptured the state of Edessa
Third Crusade
fought in reaction to the Muslim’s taking of Jerusalem in 1187
led by 3 major monarchs: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, King Richard I, and Philip II Augustus. The attempts failed as well, with the death of Barbarossa and the secession of Philip II.
King Richard was able to negotiate a settlement for Christians to have free access to Jerusalem.
Fourth Crusade
initiated by Pope Innocent, crusaders took over Constantinople to create a new, Latin, Constantinople in 1204.
Fifth Crusade
1219
tried to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims in Egypt. The Crusade failed, and the leadership structure of the Crusades was reevaluated and papal authority over the Crusades was removed.
Sixth Crusade
which had no papal support, was led by Frederick II, the German emperor. Frederick took the throne in Jerusalem without a fight. Jerusalem fell apart when Frederick left.
Seventh and Eighth Crusades
poorly organized and complete failures
Battle of Manzikurt
battle leading up to the Crusades
1071
Turks defeated Byzantine forces
massacre of Jews
became a side effect of the Crusades
The plague (black death)
mid-fourteenth century
most devastating natural disaster in European history
Genoese Merchants
brought the plague from Caffa to Sicily in October 1347
reactions to the plague
people began living for the moment
people viewed the plague as a punishment from God
flagellants
1348 German "revolt"
wanted to cleanse themselves of sin
began to attack Jews and clergy
pogroms
organized massacres against minorities in Germany
Great Schism
crisis in the late medieval church when there were first two and then three popes, ended by the Council of Constance
lasted for nearly 40 years
caused Europe to divide loyalties
Avignon papacy
1305-1377
papal prestige declined because pope no longer resided in Rome, seemed too close to the French monarchy
"unam Sanctum"
most important papal letter written by Boniface VIII
1302
strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of spiritual authority over the temporal authority
Venice
major northern Italian state
grew from commercial activity
source of political power was in the great Council
Florence
initially a free commune dominated by patricians known as the grandi
Milan
located in the fertile Po valley
one of the richest city-states
Visconti family
Golden bull
document issued by Emperor Charles IV in 1365 that stated that four lay princes and three ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors with legal power to elect the king
Joan of Arc
experienced visions and came to believe that her favorite saints had commanded her to free France and have the dauphin King.
brought 100 years war to a turning point
killed at the charges of witchcraft
Battle of Crecy
1346
massive French defeat
Battle of Poitiers
1346
ended the first phase of the 100 years' war
Black Prince forced to battle, English win and capture French King
Battle of Agincourt
1415
French defeat (6000 losses to the English 300)
Henry V invaded France while France was in distress and civil war
English Longbow
had more speed of fire than the crossbow
important in the Battle of Crecy