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19 Cards in this Set

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normal albumin values
3.5-5.0
normal prealbumin values
20
normal protein values
6-8
normal creatinine values
0.5-1.5
normal WBC values
4.0-11.0
normal bilirubin values
0.2-1.3
normal ammonia values
30-70
normal serum amylase values
0-130
normal serum lipase values
0-160
achalasia
delayed emptying of esophagus; causes acids and enzymes to errode the esophagus, because the food isn't moving down as quickly as it should
S/S of esophageal cancer
progressive dysphagia
pain
weight loss
hoarseness
Barrett's esophagus
premalignant condition; replacement of squamous epithelium with columnar epithelium; due to chronic exposure to acid from gastric reflux
causes of GERD
hiatal hernia
impaired esophageal motility
delayed gastric emptying
incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (primary cause)
complications of GERD
esophagitis- Mallory-Weiss tear (bleeding in esophagus)

esophageal stricture- dysphagia

Barrett's esophagus
peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
condition where there is erosion of GI mucosa from digestive action of HCl and pepsin; stomach is usually protected by a gastric mucosal barrier-- stomach lining is being ulcerated
why does H. pylori destroy the mucosal barrier?
generates ammonia in the mucosal layer
types of PUD and describe
GASTRIC- lesser curvature; burning/pressure; back and upper abdomen; pain 1-2 hours after meals; some N/V; weight loss

DUODENAL- acount for 80%!!!!; H. pylori seen in 90-95%; beginning of duodenum; associated with other diseases; burning/cramping pressure pain; mid-epigastrium, upper abdominal; pain 2-4 hours after meals, middle of night; relief with antacids, food; some N/V

STRESS- physiologic stress ulcers follow major insult to body; burns/shock-hypotension, injury
prevention of PUD
H2-receptor blockers or PPIs
complications of gastric surgery
dumping syndrome
postprandial hypoglycemia