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73 Cards in this Set

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Pax Romana
"Roman Peace" - A period of peace in the Mediterranean world lasting from 31 BC to AD 180
Princeps
"first citizen" - a title given to Augustus that was popular among the common people because it conveyed the idea that he was one of them and not a noble
Why did Augustus's moral reforms fail?
Augustus's reforms failed because they lacked God. Morality without the love of God is not true morality.
How did self-centered emperors gain favor of the people?
The self-centered emperors gained favor of the people by providing "free" grain and amusements for the people of Rome.
What did Octavian institute within the empire in order to provide for fairer taxing of provinces? How often did this order take place?
Octavian ordered a census-taking throughout the empire every fourteen years to provide for fairer taxing of provinces.
What other names/titles was Octavian known by?
Caesar, Augustus, and princeps were three names/titles that Octavian was known as.
There are three
What culture greatly influenced every aspect of Roman life?
The Greek culture greatly influenced every aspect of Roman life.
Cicero
Cicero was a leading political figure of the late republic who was an outstanding scholar, author, lawyer, and statesman. He influenced later Roman writers and students of Latin literature.
What three things dominated Latin literature?
Optimism, patriotism, and appreciation for traditional Roman values dominated Latin literature.
Virgil
"Homer of Rome" - considered the greatest Roman poet. He glorified Rome in his epic poem the Aeneid, one of the most widely read Latin literary works.
Horace
Horace became the "Poet of the Augustan Age." He, like Virgil, spoke of the triumph of Rome. Known for the quote, "As riches grow, care follows, and a thirst for more and more." Horace praised the simple virtues of morality, justice, courage, and moderation.
Ovid
The poetry of Ovid is quite different from that of Virgil and Horace. Ovid wrote about mythology and love. His best known work, Metamorphoses, is a collection of over two hundred myths of the ancient world. Augustus banned Ovid's works from Rome's three public libraries and even exiled him from the city because his works were out of step of Augustus's moral reforms.
Livy
Livy wrote a lengthy history of Rome. In some 142 volumes, he provides an interesting narrative of the men and events of Roman history from the founding city through the end of the republic. He saw traditional virtues and patriotism of the Roman people as the foundation of Rome's greatness.
Juvenal
The poet Juvenal wrote bitter satires on the loose morals and social problems of the empire.
Tacitus
Tacitus favored the old republic over life under the self-centered emperors. His work Annals is a valuable but pessimistic history of Rome from the death of Augustus to the reign of Nero. In Germania, Tacitus gives us a rare glimpse of the lifestyle of the Germanic peoples, who later conquered the Western Roman Empire. He contrasts the simple virtues and customs of the "barbarians" with the corrupt morals of Rome's upper class.
What language is the "parent" of the Romance languages?
Latin is the "parent" of the Romance languages- Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Rumanian.
Plutarch
Plutarch was probably the most famous Greek writer in the Roman Empire. He wrote biographies that compared the lives of important Greek and Roman men. His Parallel Lives of Illustrious Greeks and Romans is not only an excellent literary work but also the source of valuable historical information.
Pompeii
Pompeii was the city covered by the volcanic ash of Mount Vesuvius and not rediscovered until the mid-eighteenth century.
Galen
Galen was a Greek physician who made advances in medicine by experimenting with animals. He used the animals to study their lungs, heart, arteries, and blood. His encyclopedia, a collection of the medical ideas of the ancient world, became the accepted medical authority of the Middle Ages.
Ptolemy
Ptolemy promoted the theory that the earth was the center of the universe. He taught that the sun, moon, and planets revolved around the earth. Though false, his geocentric (earth-centered) theory of the universe went unchallenged for almost fourteen centuries.
Aqueducts
The Romans built aqueducts to supply water to many of their cities. Some aqueducts carried over fifty million gallons daily.
How are Roman buildings distinguished?
Roman buildings are distinguished by their large size, durability, and practicality.
The Colosseum
Since the amphitheater had been built on the site of Nero's home, the emperor Hadrian erected a large statue called a colossus of Nero outside the building. It is for this reason that the amphitheater came to be called the Colosseum. It could be flooded for naval battles, or it would be used for the fighting of gladiators or a prisoner or Christian against a wild animal such as a lion.
Epicurus
Epicurus taught that true happiness comes only as man frees his mind from fear and his body from pain. He rejected the ideas of an afterlife and divine judgment.
Lucretius
The poet Lucretius was probably the greatest expounder of Epicureanism in the Roman world. In his philosophical poem On the Nature of Things, Lucretius preserved the teachings of Epicurus. He hoped to reform the declining moral standards of the republic.
Seneca
Seneca was one of the leading Stoics of the Roman Empire. He tutored the emperor Nero. He saw Stoicism as the solution to Rome's moral decline.
Stoicism
Stoicism taught that virtue, the highest good, is based on knowledge, and that the wise live in harmony with the divine Reason (also identified with Fate and Providence) that governs nature, and are indifferent to the vicissitudes of fortune and to pleasure and pain.
Marcus Aurelius
Aurelius was a scholar, philosopher, administrator, and last of the so-called Good Emperors of Rome. Devoted to Stoicism, he was known as the "philosopher king." He expressed the Stoic ideals in his book Meditations, a collection of personal reflections.
Pontifex Maximus
"greatest priest" - The emperor held this title. People worshiped the emperor to express their loyalty and patriotism to the state. Although Christians were loyal to the state, the government persecuted them because they did not worship the emperor.
Greek and Roman Deities
Memorize chart
Synagogues
Synagogues were worship centers built by the Jews that were scattered abroad.
Septuagint
Septuagint is the translation of the Old Testament by a group of scholars from Hebrew to Greek because Jews could no longer understand the Hebrew language.
Jesus the Christ
"the Annointed One" - God sent Jesus as a sacrifice to redeem fallen men from his sinful condition and to provide eternal life to those who, by faith, trust in Him.
Pontius Pilate
The Roman governor who charged Jesus that He was working to overthrow Roman rule. Although Pilate found no flaw in Jesus, he gave into Jewish demands and sentenced Jesus to death by crucifixion.
What is the gospel?
The gospel is the good news of the Kingdom of God
Stephen
The first Christian martyr
Paul
Originally names Saul, was born in a Jewish home in Tarsus. He became a Pharisee (one of the strictest of the Jewish religious sects). He was a Christian persecutor, but one day became a Christian himself. He also wrote part of the New Testament (wrote more books in the Bible than anyone else). He introduced the gospel to a large portion of the Roman world.
Nero
The first emperor to persecute Christians. He accused the Christians of setting fire to Rome, although he himself was probably responsible.
Diocletian
The last and most widespread Roman persecution occured during the reign of emperor Diocletian. He dismissed Christian soldiers from the army and ordered the destruction of Christian churches and the burning of copies of Scriptures.
Edict of Milan
With the Edict of Milan, the Roman emperor Constantine made Christianity legal. Constantine restored church property that had been confiscated under the Diocletian persecution, made Sunday a legal holiday, contributed funds for her church buildings, and encouraged others to embrace Christianity.
Arius
Arius was a heresy who disrupted the unity of the church by challenging the deity of Christ.
Council of Nicaea
A council of church leaders formed by Constantine to settle the doctrinal conteoversey. In 325, the Council of Nicaea affirmed Christ's deity and the doctrine of the Trinity; it also branded Arianism a heresy.
Theodosius I
Christianity became the official religion of Rome by edict of the emperor Theodosius I.
Patriarch
The bishops of the most important cities of the empire were known as patriarchs.
Monasticism
A practice which exercised a strong influence from the church from the fourth century to the end of the Middle Ages was known as Monasticism. Monasteries were developed to organize the growing numbers of men and women who believed that the greatest form of piety was to withdraw from the world, practice strict discipline, and carry out religious exercises such as prayer and denial of physical comforts.
The Fall of the Roman Empire
1. Political disorder
2. Economic troubles
3. Moral decay
Three main causes for the decline of the Roman Empire
What were Diocletian's positive reforms that delayed the fall of the empire?
1. He created the position of co-emperor known as an augustus to appoint an assistant called a caesar to help rule the empire. Diocletian divided the empire into four large administrative divisions, called prefectures, which were to be ruled by the two co-emperors and the two caesars.
2. He also set maximum prices on goods and services. Anyone selling an item above the price limit would be put to death. He also reformed the tax system, but the people still suffered under an excessive tax burden.
In what city did Constantine choose to build his "New Rome." (Check the hint)
Byzantium
The city eventually became known as Constantinople.
Which emperor divided the Roman Empire into two empires when he divided the empire between his two sons?
Theodosius I
What allowed for barbarian invasions?
Roman civil war - leaving the borders completely vulnerable
Huns
Fierce nomadic tribe, which had menaced the Chinese empire for centuries.
Visigoths
A Germanic tribe who crossed the Danube River and settled in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. At the Battle of Adrianople in 378, the Visigoths soundly defeated the Roman army and killed the emperor.
Augustine
Augustine was an outstanding figure of the early church. He said that all human history is the story of two cities representing two opposing ways of life. One is the city if man, the home of sinful, unsaved men. The other is the city of God, namely His church. With this in mind, Augustine said that we should not look at individual historical events as demonstrating the favor or disfavor of some god. Instead we should see in ever event the hand of the true God directing the course of history for His purpose and glory.
Alaric
In 410, under the leadership of Alaric, the Visigoths moved southwestward into the Italian peninsula and plundered the city of Rome. They eventually settled in what is now Spain.
Attila
The leader of the Huns who was called the "scourge of God" because he was considered to be the instrument of God's wrath on a sinful people.
Vandals
A Germanic tribe that established a kingdom in North Africa that raided and pillaged Rome again. To later generations, their name came to mean "a destroyer of property."
Tiberius
-Good aministstor who got the job done
-Built himself a large palace
-Great rejoicing occurred at his death
Caligula
-Killed by his own guards
-Unstable
-very, very, evil
Claudius
Claudius was well educated, had physical and speech handicap, gambler and gluttonous, Senate hated him, conquered Britian, Morocco, and Thrace, and his own wife poisoned him so that her son (Nero) could take the throne.
Nero
Murdered: Brother, mother, first and second wives, caused Seneca to commit suicide.
first emperor to persecute Christians
Vespasian & Titus
Beginning of civil wars between generals to assume role of emperor, laid siege to Jerusalem, destroyed the temple, the Colosseum was built under their reign
Basilica
A basilica was the name of a Roman public building
Roman art encompasses... (not including Greek)
Etruscan, Native Italic, and some Egyptian visual culture
Utilitarian Art
Art that can be used, not just to be looked at
Mosaic Art
pieces of stone or pottery placed together
Sculpture Art
partially influenced by the Greeks
Portrait
A type of sculpture art (like a bust) usually of someone of importance such as an emperor or king
Coinage
common currency needed for trading goods
Cameo
layers of stone that might show a person like a god or goddess
Glassware Art
a type of Roman art
The Panthenon
a temple to worship all gods (two main parts: the portico and oculus)
Why was the Colosseum built?
for entertainment of the Roman people and emperor
What percentage of the Roman population was slaves?
up to 40%