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36 Cards in this Set

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With a flow OR resistence increase, what will happen to pressure gradient?

Pressure Gradient Increase
With a pressure gradient increase OR a resistance decrease, what will happen to flow?
Flow Decrease
The ___ the pressure difference, the ___ the flow rate
Greater
What is the formula for calculating pressure gradient?
PG = Flow x Resistance
The pressure gradient formula is similar to what other formula?
Ohm's Law
(voltage = current x resistance)
Vein walls are (thick|thin) and (collapsible|noncollapsible)
Thin
Collapsible
During normal function, veins are (high|low) pressure and (fully|partially) filled
Low
Partially
The cross-sectional shape of a vein during normal function is ___
Flattened & Hourglass Shaped
Are veins typically low or high resistance vessels?
Low Resistance (like arteries)
How can veins handle a large volume increase without a similar increase in pressure?
Cross-sectional shape can increase to oval and then circle
Normal veins increase flow to the heart with a (large|small) increase in pressure
Small
The shape and volume of veins are determined by the pressure acting to expand them. What is this pressure called?
Transmural Pressure
After what point do venous pressures attain their highest levels?
After veins are stretched to their maximum dimension
The weight of blood pressing on a vessel measured at a height above or below heart level
Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is reported in what units?
mmHg
Blood pressure is accurately assessed when taken where?
At the level of the heart
When blood pressure is taken above or below the level of the heart, ___ pressure introduces ___ into the measurement
Hydrostatic Pressure
Error
When blood pressure is taken above the level of the heart, the measurement is too (high|low) due to ___
Low
Hydrostatic Pressure
When blood pressure is taken below the level of the heart, the measurement is too (high|low) due to ___
High
Hydrostatic Pressure
What is the hydrostatic pressure of a patient in the supine position?
0 mmHg
Is a blood pressure measured anywhere on a supine patient accurate?
Yes
A supine patient's arterial BP (measured at the arm) is 140 mmHg. What is the hydrostatic pressure at all locations within the arterial circulation?
0 mmHg
A supine patient's arterial BP (measured at the arm) is 140 mmHg. What is teh arterial pressure at their knee?
140 mmHg
A supine patient's arterial BP (measured at the arm) is 140 mmHg. What is the arterial pressure in their carotid artery?
140 mmHg
In a standing patient, where are negative hydrostatic pressures found? Positive hydrostatic pressures?
- Above the level of the heart
+ Below the level of the heart
Measured BP is a combination of what two other measurable pressures?
Circulatory Pressure + Hydrostatic Pressure
Downward movement of the diaphragm occurs during what portion of the respiration process?
Inspiration
Upward movement of the diaphragm occurs during what portion of the respiration process?
Expiration
What occurs to thoracic blood pressure and blood flow during inspiration?
1. Thoracic pressure decreases
2. Thoracic venous flow increases
What occurs to thoracic blood pressure and blood flow during expiration?
1. Thoracic pressure increases
2. Thoracic venous flow decreaese
What occurs to lower body blood pressure and blood flow during inspiration?
1. Lower body pressure increases
2. Lower body venous flow decreases
What occurs to lower body blood pressure and blood flow during expiration?
1. Lower body pressure decreases
2. Lower body venous flow increases
What happens to venous flow in the legs during inspiration?
Decreases
All of the following occur during expiration except:
A. venous return to the heart decreases
B. venous flow in the legs increases
C. abdominal pressure increases
D. diaphragm rises into the thoracic cavity
C
When venous flow in the leg decreases, venous return to the heart ___
Increases
When venous flow in the leg increases, venous return to the heart ___
Decreases