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114 Cards in this Set

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Definition of cell:
fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms, and arise from pre-existing cells by division.
Explain what cell theory is:
That all organisms are composed of one or more cells (life processes of metabolism and heredity occur), cell are the smallest living things, cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell.
The which three Germans is the most credit due for it conceptualization?
1. Matthias Schleiden
2. Theodor Schwann
3. Rudolf Virchow
What are the range of cell sizes?
Most cells are small (microscopic) for reasons related to diffusion of substances in and out of cells. They range from .1nm Hydrogen atom to 1m adult human
The rate of diffuse is affected by what four variables?
1. surface area available
2. temperature
3. concentration gradient
4. distance
Draw and label a Prokaryotic Cell:
paper
Draw and label a Eukaryotic Cell:
paper
What is the nucleus?
1. located in central region of the cell.
2. repository of the genetic information that enables the synthesis of nearly all proteins of a living cell
What is the cytoplasm?
the jello like stuff that surrounds the whole inside of the cell. It contains all of the sugars, amino acids, and proteins the cell uses to carry out its everyday activities.
What is the cell membrane?
It is the part that encloses the cell and separates its contents from its surroundings. It is surrounded by proteins that help it interact with the environment.
How is the nucleus set off from the cytoplasm?
by the rough endoplasmic reticulum. rough by the presence or ribosomes.
What happens at the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)?
proteins are synthesized on the surface and then sent out out of cell.
How does the nucleus retain its connections to the rest of the cell?
it is the one thing that 1 contain the DNA but also lets enables the synthesizing of proteins to take place.
We call any discrete macromolecular structure in the cytoplasm specialized for a particular function a what?
an organelle
The part of the cytoplasm that contains organic molecules and ions in solution to is called what?
cytosol
What are all the organelles found in a Eukaryotic cell?
1. ribosomes 2. endoplasmic reticulum 3. golgi bodies 4. vesicles 5. mitochondria 6. lysozomes 7. peroxisomes 8. centrioles 9. microtubules 10. inclusions 11. flagella
What are the major organelles and where are they located?
cell wall, Cytosol, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Ribosome, Lysosome
What is the cell walls function?
1.Selective Barrier

2.Transport of cellular nutrients and waste

3.Recognition of cellular signals
What is the function of cytosol?
1.Interior matrix of cell

2.Contains cellular molecules, macromolecules such as enzymes, lipids, carbohydrates, and RNA

3.Organized and compartmentalized
What is the function of the nucleus?
1.Largest organelle

2.Contains chromosomes

3.Chromosomes consist of DNA and Protein

4.Organized by protein matrix
What is the function of the Mitochondria?
1.Contains the Kreb cycle and electron transport system

2.Major site of ATP synthesis

3.Involved with cellular “self destruct” called Apoptosis
Whats is the function of the Chloroplast?
1.Contains the Photosynthetic systems

2.Responsible for converting light energy to chemical energy
what is the function of the Ribosome?
1.Composed of RNA and proteins

2.Responsible for synthesizing protein molecules
What is the function of the Lysosome?
1Contains digestive enzymes that break up proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

2.Responsible for removing waste molecules and recycling molecular subunits
what are the 3 characteristics of the cell membrane?
1. basic membrane referred to as phospholipid bilayer
2. protein molecules(either peripheral or integral)
3. cholesterol
3.
whats the difference between a peripheral or integral protein?
peripheral- proteins are found on the inner membrane surface
integral- proteins are partially or wholly embedded in the membrane
What is easy to get allowed into the plasma membrane?
small ions, certain fat-bound molecules. Non-polar molecules are more likely to get in.
What did the early model portray the membrane to be like and who invented that?
"the protein sandwich" Phospholipids bounded by proteins Hugh Davson & James Danielli
The "fluid mosaic model" changed the way of thinking about the early membrane model by doing what?
1972: Fluid-Mosaic Model--Seymour Jonathan Singer & Garth Nicolson.
The plasma membrane is composed of a bilayer of phospholipids in association with proteins (integral proteins).
Cell membranes are assembled from what 4 components?
1.phospholipid bilayer
2. transmembrane proteins
3.interior protein network
4.cell-surface markers
What is the function of the phospholipid bilayer?
it excludes water-soluble molecules from non-polar interior of bi-layer and cell.
Function: provides permeability barrier, matrix for proteins
What is the function of the Transmembrane proteins?
There are 3 types:
1. carriers
2. channels
3. receptors
collection of proteins that float in the lipid bilayer they transport and communicate across the membrane, some fixed or not fixed.
What is the function of the Interior protein network?
reinforce the membranes shape consist of spectrins and clathrins
What is the function of the cell-surface markers?
to recognize what tissues are which
What does it mean to be differential permeable?
cell membrane only allows certain things through
List the differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote cells:
1) Size: Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex.
2) Nucleus: Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do.
3) Structure of DNA: Eukaryotic DNA is linear while prokaryotic DNA is circular. Also, Eukaryotic DNA is organized into chromosomes and is complexed with specialized proteins called histones. In Contrast, prokaryotic DNA does not have histones associated with it and prokaryotic DNA does not form chromosomes.
4) Ribosome Structure: Eukaryotic ribosomes are much larger than prokaryotic ribosomes.
5) Organelles: The cytoplasm of prokaryotes does not contain any organelles.
List the similarities between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote cells:
1) Enclosed by plasma membranes.

2) Contain ribosomes.

3) Have DNA.

4) Filled with cytoplasm.
What are the 3 domains of life?
1. bacteria
2. archaea
3. Eukarya
What are the similarities and differences of the 3 domains of life?
Archaea and Bacteria are both prokaryotes and have a cell wall; Eukarya are eukaryotes, and not all have a cell wall. The Eukarya share similarities in membrane structure with Bacteria, but, among those that have cell walls, share a similarities in cell wall structure with Archaea. This has led to the hypothesis that Eukarya arose through a fusion of a Bacteria and an Archaea.
What is the importance of ion channels?
they are important so that ions can diffuse through the channel in either direction depending on the relative concentration across the membrane. They play an essential role in signaling by the nervous system. have Aquaporins
which are like the plumbers for the cell, regulating the flow of water
What are the 3 major types of intercellular junctions?
1.adhesion
2. tight
3. gap
What is an adhesion junction?
connect the actin filaments of one cell with those of neighboring cells
What is a tight junction?
connect the plasma membranes of adjacent cells in a sheet. the sheets at as walls keeping molecules on one side or the other.
What is a gap junction?
when the plasma membrane channels are joined allows small substances through but not larger ones
What does it mean to be differential permeable?
cell membrane only allows certain things through
List the differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote cells:
1) Size: Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex.
2) Nucleus: Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do.
3) Structure of DNA: Eukaryotic DNA is linear while prokaryotic DNA is circular. Also, Eukaryotic DNA is organized into chromosomes and is complexed with specialized proteins called histones. In Contrast, prokaryotic DNA does not have histones associated with it and prokaryotic DNA does not form chromosomes.
4) Ribosome Structure: Eukaryotic ribosomes are much larger than prokaryotic ribosomes.
5) Organelles: The cytoplasm of prokaryotes does not contain any organelles.
List the similarities between Prokaryotes and Eukaryote cells:
1) Enclosed by plasma membranes.

2) Contain ribosomes.

3) Have DNA.

4) Filled with cytoplasm.
What are the 3 domains of life?
1. bacteria
2. archaea
3. Eukarya
What are the similarities and differences of the 3 domains of life?
Archaea and Bacteria are both prokaryotes and have a cell wall; Eukarya are eukaryotes, and not all have a cell wall. The Eukarya share similarities in membrane structure with Bacteria, but, among those that have cell walls, share a similarities in cell wall structure with Archaea. This has led to the hypothesis that Eukarya arose through a fusion of a Bacteria and an Archaea.
What is the importance of ion channels?
they are important so that ions can diffuse through the channel in either direction depending on the relative concentration across the membrane. They play an essential role in signaling by the nervous system. have Aquaporins
which are like the plumbers for the cell, regulating the flow of water
What are the 3 major types of intercellular junctions?
1.adhesion
2. tight
3. gap
What is an adhesion junction?
connect the actin filaments of one cell with those of neighboring cells
What is a tight junction?
connect the plasma membranes of adjacent cells in a sheet. the sheets at as walls keeping molecules on one side or the other.
What is a gap junction?
when the plasma membrane channels are joined allows small substances through but not larger ones
How to cells stick together?
by the components of the cell membrane.A tight junction fuses cells together (this is only present in vertebrates), while a gap junction consists of pairs of channels fused (in animal cells). Plasmodesma fuses plant cells together.
What is a Hypertonic solution?
Concentration of solute lower than on other side
Cells placed in a hypotonic solution will swell
May cause cells to break – Lysis
What is a Hypotonic solution?
Concentration of solute higher than on other side
Cells placed in a hypertonic solution will shrink –
Plasmolysis in plants, crenation in rbc’s
What is a isotonic solution?
Solute and water concentrations equal on both sides of membrane
What are the six major types of the membrane proteins?
1. channel proteins
2. carrier proteins
3. cell recognition proteins
4. receptor proteins
5.Enzymatin proteins
6. junction proteins
Describe the channel proteins:
Tubular
Allow passage of molecules through membrane
Ion and water channels
Describe the carrier proteins:
Combine with substance to be transported
Assist passage of molecules through membrane
Glucose transporting
Describe the cell recognition proteins:
Provides unique chemical ID for cells
Help body recognize foreign substances
Blood types, MHC
Describe the receptor proteins:
Binds with messenger molecule
Causes cell to respond to message
Hormonal responses, cell movement, endocytosis
Describe the enzymatic proteins:
Carry out metabolic reactions directly
Describe Junction proteins:
Join adjacent cells (desmosomes)
Strength, structure, communication
What is the MHC and why is it important?
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a set of molecules displayed on cell surfaces that are responsible for lymphocyte recognition.control the immune response through recognition of "self" and "non-self"
Where is the MHC located?
located on human chromosome 6.
What are the four types of transportation across the plasma membrane?
1. diffusion
2. facilitated transport
3. active transport
4. bulk transport
What types of transportation don't use energy?
1. diffusion
2. facilitated transport
passive
What types of transportation use energy?
3. active transport
4. bulk transport
active
Describe the modern cell theory:
1.The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms.
2.All cells arise from pre-existing cells by division.
3.Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
4.Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
5.All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species.
6.All known living things are made up of one or more cells.
7.Some organisms are made up of only one cell and are known as unicellular organisms.
8.Others are multicellular, composed of a number of cells.
9.The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells.
What is the function of the mitochondria? and what types of cells are they found in?
found in all eukaryotic cells. contains its own DNA (circular) and makes proteins for its unique functions, not new ones are made the old ones just divide to make new cell. Bound by membranes.
What is the function of chloroplast? and what types of cells is it found in?
found in plant cells and some other eukaryotes. used to cary out photosynthesis. have own DNA (circular)
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum? and in what types of cells is it found in?
composed of phospholipid bi-layer embedded with proteins. Rough ER (with ribosomes)—protein synthesis
Smooth ER (without ribosomes)—modify polypeptides with lipids, etc.; detoxifying. found in all cells. membrane bound.
What is the function of the golgi bodies? and what types of cell is it found in?
finctions include: collection, packaging, and distribution of molecules synthesis at one location to another. membranous disks modifying polypeptides with lipids.
What is the function of lysosomes and what types of cells are they found in?
sacs containing enzymes for breaking down items (i.e., toxins)
Whats is the function of vesicles and where are they found?
membranous sacs storing products or transporting products (some from golgi)
What are the functions of vacuoles and where are they found?
found only in plant cells. Membrane-bounded structures in plants
Various functions depending on the cell type
Whats is the function of peroxisomes and where are they found?
sacs containing enzymes breaking long fatty acid chainsH2O2
What is the function of spindle fibers and where are they found?
in cell division, spindle fibres are what the centromere of chromosomes attach to. since there is one spindle fibre per chromosome, it also helps keep them separate from one another. the contractions of the spindle fibres pull the chromosomes (mitosis, meiosis
Describe the three different types of vacuoles?
Central vacuole in plant cells
Contractile vacuole of some protists
Storage vacuoles
What is the function of centrioles and where are they found?
for maneuving chromosomes during mitosis
What is the function of asters and where are they found?
Asters are microtubules(components of the cellular cytoskeleton) produced by centrioles. Their function is to hold the two centrioles in place at the two poles of the cell during cell division(mitosis)
What are ribosomes and in what cells are they found?
Cell’s protein synthesis machinery
Found in all cell types in all 3 domains
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-protein complex
Protein synthesis also requires messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA)
Ribosomes may be free in cytoplasm or associated with internal membranes
What does the nucleus do?
Repository of the genetic information
Most eukaryotic cells possess a single nucleus
Nucleolus – region where ribosomal RNA synthesis takes place
Do all cells have a nucleus?
nope, Red blood cells are the only cells in the human body that do not have a nucleus. As a result, they cannot divide and so are produced in bone marrow
What is the nucleolus?
region where ribosomal RNA synthesis takes place
What is found in the nucleus?
Nuclear envelope
2 phospholipid bilayers
Nuclear pores – control passage in and out
What is found in the nucleolus?
ribosomal assembly areas where the RNA molecules cluster together before being sent of to get synthesis.
Whats is diffusion? and is energy needed?
net movement of substance from regions of high concentration to low concentration. energy not required.
What is facilitated diffusion? and is energy needed?
where molecules are be diffused through certain channels. Small molecules
Can’t get through membrane lipids
Combine with carrier proteins
Follow concentration gradient.
2. no energy required
What is osmosis and is energy required?
no energy required. The net diffusion of water across a membrane toward a higher solute concentration.
What is hypertonic? hypotonic? and isotonic?
1.more than
2. less than
3. equal
What is happening in an active transport process?
Small molecules
Move against concentration gradient
Combining with carrier proteins
Requires energy
What is used for energy in the active transport process?
ATP
Describe what a pump is:
Na+/K+ pump uses ATP to move Na+ out of a cell and K+ in. 1/3 of our Energy Use!!
what is direct transport and coupled transport?
“Direct transport”—uses energy directly
Coupled transport—Energy stored by intermediate molecule as another molecule moves down its concentration gradient. Uptake of glucose against gradient by using Na+ gradient.
What is endocytosis?
– Cells engulf substances into pouch which becomes a vesicle
What is pinocytosis?
Liquid or small, solid particles go into vesicle
What is phagocytosis?
Large, solid material into vesicle
what is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
Specific form of pinocytosis using a coated pit
What is exocytosis?
Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and secrete contents
explain coupled transport:
Another transmembrane protein
transports Na+ down its concentration gradient (into the cell) while also taking along
a glucose molecule (against its gradient)

Hence, ATP was used to get the
Na+ gradient in the first place.
Therefore, co-transport.
About how much of our daily energy is used to power these pumps?
1/3-2/3
what is transcytosis and what human disease has taken advantage of it?
Transcytosis is the process by which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell. Vesicles are employed to intake the macromolecules on one side of the cell, draw them across the cell, and eject them on the other side. ...AIDS!
what is direct transport and coupled transport?
“Direct transport”—uses energy directly
Coupled transport—Energy stored by intermediate molecule as another molecule moves down its concentration gradient. Uptake of glucose against gradient by using Na+ gradient.
What is endocytosis?
– Cells engulf substances into pouch which becomes a vesicle
What is pinocytosis?
Liquid or small, solid particles go into vesicle
What is phagocytosis?
Large, solid material into vesicle
what is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
Specific form of pinocytosis using a coated pit
What is exocytosis?
Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and secrete contents
explain coupled transport:
Another transmembrane protein
transports Na+ down its concentration gradient (into the cell) while also taking along
a glucose molecule (against its gradient)

Hence, ATP was used to get the
Na+ gradient in the first place.
Therefore, co-transport.
About how much of our daily energy is used to power these pumps?
1/3-2/3
what is transcytosis and what human disease has taken advantage of it?
Transcytosis is the process by which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell. Vesicles are employed to intake the macromolecules on one side of the cell, draw them across the cell, and eject them on the other side. ...AIDS!