Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


responsible for the transportation fro nutrients and needed gases and waste. it's a 3 way for enzymes and hormones. has to do with temperature regulation.


we have 25 trillion red blood cells

a typical blood cell only lives about 120 days

cell division is responsible for the production of red blood cells

7.35/7.45 pH of blood

functions of blood

electrolyte balance

important in immunity


an excessively acid condition of the body fluids or tissues.


an excessively alkaline condition of the body fluids or tissues that may cause weakness or cramps.


makes up about 55% of volume of blood

made up primarily of water; about 92%

includes different types of proteins

includes different types of ions such as potassium and sodium

contains nutrients

contains amino acids and glucose

erythrocytes (red blood cells)

cells that live for about 120 days

major component is hemoglobin

the mature cells are anucleated

these cells are constantly replaced


immature red blood cells

bicaved shaped cells

4 blood groups

1. A: 41 % of population; can be AA or AO

2. B: 9% of the population; can be BB or BO

3. AB: 4% of the population; can only be AB

4. O: 46% of the population; can be O or OO

rhesus factor

Rh+: approx. 85% of the population

Rh-: approx. 15% of the population




Leukocytes (white blood cells)

type of blood cell in which you have about 1000 red blood cells for each one of these cells

lower count= immunodeficiency

high count= infection


the most common WBC's

a type of granulocyte

make up 60-70%of WBC's


destroy bacteria, allergens, and may attack parasites when they enter your body

they destroy through the process of phagocytosis

high amounts= burns, inflammation, or infection

low amounts=lupus, vitamin B-12 deficiency


make up 1-4% of WBC's

orange-ish or red


capable of undergoing a process called diapedesis which can squeeze through the tissue to do their job

high amounts= allergies, parasitic infections

low amounts= could mean that you have an endocrine problem called cushing syndrome


make up less than 1% of WBC's

can undergo diapedesis (squeezing in and out)

they contain heparin which is a polysaccharide

keeps blood from clogging too quickly (anticoagulant)

high amounts= some forms of cancer

low amounts= may appear during ovulation


type of agranulocyte

make up 20-40% of WBC's

bigger than a red blood cell

big nucleus with very little cytoplasm

produce antibodies so they are important in immune response

protect us from viruses

high amount= immune disorders such as leukemia

low amounts= immunosuppression's such as HIV, opportunistic infections


make up 2-8% of WBC's

largest of the different types of WBC's

have large, dark stained, kidney shaped nucleus

blue-ish and foamy

found in your circulatory for about 3 days once they are formed. they leave vessels and roam about the tissues. become wandering macro-phage. they are looking for cellular debris or bacteria. If they come across something too big they send messes to the other monocytes to come help it fight.

high number= variety of infections

low number= relatively uncommon

they report out differential

mucous membrane

cutaneous membrane

serous membrane

muscle tissue

a type of tissue that has the ability to contract. when it contracts it generated the force to do work.

can exhibit excitability

it can extend



it generates force to preform work

maintains posture

provides movement

generates heat

smooth muscle

type of muscle that is involuntary

controlled by the autonomic nervous system

ex: peristalsis

can control under vital feedback

lacks striation

2 types of visceral muscle

single unit:

the most common smooth muscle. it might be found wrapped around small vessels in the bladder, or small intestine.

multi unit: found around large vessels. it has more responsibility. it can be found in the bronchioles of the lungs. can be found in the capsules of the spleen. some can be found in the eye.

ex: muscle in the arrector pili

skeletal muscle

sometimes called striated smooth muscle


usually attached to the bones of the skeleton

we call it striated because it has stripes or striations in it when viewed from a microscope. has bands of the proteins actin and myosin.

capable of hard work

has a very complex anatomy

cardiac muscle

is the most durable muscle in the body

capable of long hard and sustained work

make up is similar to skeletal muscle


nervous tissue

a tissue that is very important in inter-grading and controlling bodily systems

it is intimately linked to all the organs

important in systems

monitors internal and external environment

have over 100 billion of these cells in your blood

glial "neurologlia": support these cells

variety of sizes of great diversity

vary in shape


a cell that has a star shaped appearance; found in nerve tissue


cancer of astrocytes; which can be known as brain cancer

3 parts of nerve cells

1. body: you find cellular components. big nucleus, organelles, and nissl bodies.

2. axons: carry away from the cell body

3. dendrites

multi-polar neurons:


bi-polar neurons


unipolar neurons