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30 Cards in this Set

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Blood

responsible for the transportation fro nutrients and needed gases and waste. it's a 3 way for enzymes and hormones. has to do with temperature regulation.




facts:


we have 25 trillion red blood cells


a typical blood cell only lives about 120 days


cell division is responsible for the production of red blood cells


7.35/7.45 pH of blood

functions of blood

electrolyte balance


important in immunity





acidosis

an excessively acid condition of the body fluids or tissues.

alkalosis

an excessively alkaline condition of the body fluids or tissues that may cause weakness or cramps.

plasma

makes up about 55% of volume of blood


made up primarily of water; about 92%


includes different types of proteins


includes different types of ions such as potassium and sodium


contains nutrients


contains amino acids and glucose

erythrocytes (red blood cells)

cells that live for about 120 days


major component is hemoglobin


the mature cells are anucleated


these cells are constantly replaced



reticulocytes

immature red blood cells


bicaved shaped cells

4 blood groups

1. A: 41 % of population; can be AA or AO


2. B: 9% of the population; can be BB or BO


3. AB: 4% of the population; can only be AB


4. O: 46% of the population; can be O or OO





rhesus factor

Rh+: approx. 85% of the population


Rh-: approx. 15% of the population


M:MM


N: NN


MN: MN

Leukocytes (white blood cells)

type of blood cell in which you have about 1000 red blood cells for each one of these cells


lower count= immunodeficiency


high count= infection

neutrophils

the most common WBC's


a type of granulocyte


make up 60-70%of WBC's


Poly-morpho-nucleated


destroy bacteria, allergens, and may attack parasites when they enter your body


they destroy through the process of phagocytosis


high amounts= burns, inflammation, or infection


low amounts=lupus, vitamin B-12 deficiency



eosinophils

make up 1-4% of WBC's


orange-ish or red


bilobed


capable of undergoing a process called diapedesis which can squeeze through the tissue to do their job


high amounts= allergies, parasitic infections


low amounts= could mean that you have an endocrine problem called cushing syndrome

baophil

make up less than 1% of WBC's


can undergo diapedesis (squeezing in and out)


they contain heparin which is a polysaccharide


keeps blood from clogging too quickly (anticoagulant)


high amounts= some forms of cancer


low amounts= may appear during ovulation



lymphocyte

type of agranulocyte


make up 20-40% of WBC's


bigger than a red blood cell


big nucleus with very little cytoplasm


produce antibodies so they are important in immune response


protect us from viruses


high amount= immune disorders such as leukemia


low amounts= immunosuppression's such as HIV, opportunistic infections



monocytes

make up 2-8% of WBC's


largest of the different types of WBC's


have large, dark stained, kidney shaped nucleus


blue-ish and foamy


found in your circulatory for about 3 days once they are formed. they leave vessels and roam about the tissues. become wandering macro-phage. they are looking for cellular debris or bacteria. If they come across something too big they send messes to the other monocytes to come help it fight.


high number= variety of infections


low number= relatively uncommon


they report out differential

mucous membrane

cutaneous membrane

serous membrane

muscle tissue

a type of tissue that has the ability to contract. when it contracts it generated the force to do work.


can exhibit excitability


it can extend


elastic


flexible


it generates force to preform work


maintains posture


provides movement


generates heat

smooth muscle

type of muscle that is involuntary


controlled by the autonomic nervous system


ex: peristalsis


can control under vital feedback


lacks striation



2 types of visceral muscle

single unit:


the most common smooth muscle. it might be found wrapped around small vessels in the bladder, or small intestine.


multi unit: found around large vessels. it has more responsibility. it can be found in the bronchioles of the lungs. can be found in the capsules of the spleen. some can be found in the eye.


ex: muscle in the arrector pili



skeletal muscle

sometimes called striated smooth muscle


voluntary


usually attached to the bones of the skeleton


we call it striated because it has stripes or striations in it when viewed from a microscope. has bands of the proteins actin and myosin.


capable of hard work


has a very complex anatomy

cardiac muscle

is the most durable muscle in the body


capable of long hard and sustained work


make up is similar to skeletal muscle


intercalated

nervous tissue

a tissue that is very important in inter-grading and controlling bodily systems


it is intimately linked to all the organs


important in systems


monitors internal and external environment


have over 100 billion of these cells in your blood


glial "neurologlia": support these cells


variety of sizes of great diversity


vary in shape







astrocyte

a cell that has a star shaped appearance; found in nerve tissue

astrocytoma

cancer of astrocytes; which can be known as brain cancer

3 parts of nerve cells

1. body: you find cellular components. big nucleus, organelles, and nissl bodies.




2. axons: carry away from the cell body




3. dendrites

multi-polar neurons:



...

bi-polar neurons

...

unipolar neurons

...