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191 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TFTs in pregnancy
Elevated TOTAL T3 and T4, otherwise normal
Study of choice in suspected stroke
Non-contrast CT
Pain after a fatty meal resolving between episodes: dx?
Biliary colic (GB contraction causing pain from stones)
Severe symptomatic hyponatremia (incl 2/2 SIADH): tx?
3% saline
Complication of overrapid correction of hyponatremia
* (complication of?)
Central pontine myelinolysis
Primary amenorrhea without breast development: workup
FSH
-If low: GnRH stimulation test (central problem)
-If normal: Dx ovarian a/dysgenesis
-If increased: Karyotype (gonadal problem)
Cyanosis aggravated by feeding and relieved by crying: dx?
* (presentation)
Choanal atresia
Lyme dz treatment
-Early-localized, <9 years
-Early-localized, >9 years
-Disseminated
-Amoxicillin
-Doxycycline
-Ceftriaxone or Penicillin G
Biliary condition a/w IBD
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Structures affected by PSC
* (damaged in what?)
Medium and large ducts of intra- and extra-hepatic biliary tree
Histological finding in PSC
*
"Onion-skinning" pattern
Cholangiographic finding of PSC
*
"Beading" (stricture and dilation of bile ducts)
Medical tx of PSC
Ursodeoxycholic acid
Gender in which PBC is more common
Women
Gender in which PSC is more common
Men
Biliary condition with anti-mitochondrial antibodies
* (antibody)
PBC
Biliary condition with postive p-ANCA
PSC
MCC of polycythemia in term newborn
Delayed clamping of umbilical cord
MC presenting signs of polycythemia in newborn (3)
Respiratory distress
Poor feeding
Neuro manifestations
Hemodynamically unstable trauma pt with inconclusive FAST: next step?
DPL
Lichenoid papules over joints: dx?
Dermatomyositis
Constipation: a metabolic cause
Hypercalcemia (consider MM etc in appropriate context)
Med for tx of SIADH
* (use)
Demeclocycline
Tx of nephrogenic DI (3)
Indomethacin (NSAID) and HCTZ
Amiloride if lithium-induced
Diastolic heart failure
-Classic cause
-Arrythmia
-Hypertension
-AFib
Symmetric erythematous vesicles over extensor surfaces of elbows and knees: dx?
Dermatitis herpetiformis, a/w celiac dz
Cluster headaches
-Ppx (3)
-Tx (2)
-Verapamil, lithium, ergotamine
-100% O2, subQ sumatriptan
Tricuspid atresia
-Cyanotic?
-EKG
-CXR
-Tx
*
-Cyanotic
-LAD
-Decreased pulm vascular markings, normal sized heart
-PGE1 and balloon atrial septostomy
TOF
-CXR
-EKG
*
-Decreased pulm vasc markings with normal sized heart
-Right atrial dilation, RVH
Truncus arteriosus
-CXR
-EKG
*
-Cardiomegaly, increased vasc markings, right aortic arch
-Biventricular hypertrophy
Ebstein's anomaly
-CXR
-EKG
*
-Extreme cardiomegaly
-RAH
Mechanism of nitrates in cardiac chest pain
Venodilation --> decreased preload
Amiodarone: use
Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
SEs of amiodarone (5)
* (drug causing)
1) Pulmonary fibrosis
2) Hypo- or hyperthyroidism
3) Hepatotoxicity
4) Corneal deposits
5) Blue-gray skin discoloration
Normal values
-Right atrial pressure
-Pulmonary artery pressure
-PCWP
-4-6 mmHg
<25/15 mmHg
-6-12 mmHg
Bronchiectasis
-CXR findings (3)
-Definitive imaging modality
*
-Prominent bronchioles, peripheral opacities, linear atelectasis
-High resolution CT
Ehrlichiosis: tx
Doxycycline
Infection causing elevated LFTs, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* (3 signs)
Ehrlichiosis
Cause of hypotension with epidural
Sympathetic block --> LE vasodilation and venous blood pooling
Histological findings in liver in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
*
PAS+ hepatocyte inclusions that resist digestion by diastase
Trihexyphenidyl
-Class
-Indications (2)
-Anticholinergic
-Parkinson's, extrapyramidal SEs
Selegiline
-Class
-Indication
*
-MAOB inhibitor
-Parkinson's
Bromocriptine
-Class
-Indication
-Dopamine agonist
-Parkinson's
Azithromycin: class
Macrolide
Tx for active TB
INH + pyrazinamide + rifampin + ethambutol x 2 months
then
INH + rifampin x 4 months
SE of rifampin
Turns body fluids orange
SE of ethambutol
Optic neuritis
SEs of INH (2)
Peripheral neuritis (prevent with B6)
Hepatitis
Ppx for contacts of pts with meningococcal meningitis
Rifampin
Turner syndrome with 45X/46XY karyotype: concern
Gonadoblastoma --> prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy
Benign essential tremor
-Affected areas
-Type of tremor
-Tx
-Head and hands (not usually legs)
-Action tremor
-Propranalol
How to monitor respiratory function in Guillain-Barre
Serial vital capacity measurements
PDA: type of murmur
Continuous
Endocardial cushion defects can cause ___
Pulmonary hypertension
P2 heart sound indicates?
Pulmonary hypertension
SE of EPO
Worsening of HTN
Simple asx renal cyst: management
None
Rx for HOCM
Beta-blockers
Classic triad of RCC
Hematuria
Flank pain
Palpable abdominal mass
Scrotal varicocele that fails to empty when pt is recumbent: concern for?
RCC
Tx for hairy cell leukemia
* (tx for)
Cladribine
Tx for NHL
CHOP
Tx of pt who presents >5 days after onset of appendicitis with localized RLQ findings: management
IV hydration, 2nd/3rd gen ceph, bowel rest
SE of methotrexate (3)
-How to prevent
* (SEs of?)
Stomatitis (oral ulcers)
Hepatotoxicity
Anemia
-Folic acid
Felty syndrome
* (syndrome)
RA with splenomegaly and granulocytopenia
When is it OK to use TMP-SMX during pregnancy?
Second trimester
Tx of asx bacteriuria in pregnancy (3)
Amoxicillin
Nitrofurantoin
Cephalosporins
Abnl values in von Willebrand dz
Increased bleeding time and PTT
(Normal platelet count)
CNS complications of mumps (2)
Aseptic meningitis
Encephalitis
Tx of postherpetic neuralgia
TCAs (amitriptyline, nortriptyline)
Tx of enterobiasis (pinworm)
-First line
-Second line
*
-Albendazole or mebendazole
-Pyrantel pamoate
Turcot's syndrome
-Definition
-Inheritance
*
-Brain tumors (medulloblastoma or glioma) a/w FAP or HNPCC
-AR
Gardner's syndrome
-Definition
-Inheritance
*
-Colonic polyps with various extraintestinal lesions
-AD
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
-Definition
-Inheritance
*
-Intestinal hamartomatous polyps with mucocutaneous melanocytic macules
-AD
Multiple hamartoma syndrome
-Other name
-Inheritance
-Presentation (4)
*
-Cowden syndrome
-AD
1) GI hamartomas
2) Breast ca
3) Thyroid ca
4) Nodular gingival hyperplasia
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome
-Presentation
-Inheritance
*
-Juvenile-type polyps and ectodermal abnormalities (alopecia, hyperpigmentation, nail loss)
-Sporadic
Development of sinuses
Birth: Maxillary & ethmoid
First few years: Sphenoid
Age 9-10: Frontal
Echinococcus
-Causes what?
-MC sites
-Who is at risk
*
-Hydatid cysts
-Liver, then lung
-Sheep workers
RBCs in lead poisoning
*
Basophilic stippling
Peripheral smear finding in HUS
Schistocytes
Tx of early localized Lyme in pregnant women
Amoxicillin
Empiric tx for bacterial meningitis
IV ceftriaxone + vanc
MAC ppx in HIV with CD4 <50
Azithromycin
PCP ppx in txplant pts
TMP-SMX
PID:
-Chlamydia rx
-Gonorrhea rx
-Azithromycin
-Ceftriaxone
Cutaneous manifestations of blastomycosis
Verrucous or ulcerative
Abscess near head/neck draining sulfur granules: dx?
Actinomyces
MCC SBE in pts with preexisting valvular disease
Viridans group Strep
MCC SBE in pts with prosthetic valve
Staph epidermidis
Peripheral neuropathy, renal failure & anemia: dx?
* (presentation - 3)
Lead poisoning
Adolescent with epistaxis, nasal mass and bony erosion in back of nose: dx?
* (presentation)
Juvenile angiofibroma
Condition a/w anaphylactic rxn to blood transfusion
IgA deficiency
Cytokines in stored blood product may cause ___
* (caused by)
TRALI
MCC painless hematuria in adults
Bladder tumor
"Snowstorm" on US: dx?
Molar pregnancy
HTN before 20 weeks in pregnancy: dx?
Chronic HTN or hydatidiform mole
When to retest Rh(D) Abs in pregnancy?
24-28 weeks
Mechanism in Meniere's dz
Accumulation of endolymph in inner ear
Dx/tx of intussusception
Air contrast enema
Vascular damage with supracondylar fracture
* (type of injury damaging this)
Brachial artery --> loss of radial pulse
Secondary damage with proximal humerus fracture
* (type of injury damaging this)
Axillary nerve
Friedreich ataxia
-Class
-Inheritance
-Manifestations (4)
-MCCs of death (2)
*
-Spinocerebellar ataxia
-AR
1) Ataxia & dysarthria
2) Scoliosis and foot deformities (hammer toes)
3) Concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
4) Diabetes
-Cardiomyopathy and respiratory complications
Presentation of cavernous sinus thrombosis (4)
*
1) HA
2) Low grade fever
3) Periorbital edema
4) CN palsies
Mechanism of malabsorption in ZE syndrome
Inactivation of pancreatic enzymes by stomach acid
Typical antipsychotic causing hypothermia
Fluphenazine
Fluphenazine
-Class
-SE
-Typical antipsychotic
-Hypothermia
One live vaccine OK in HIV
MMR (w/ CD4 >200 and no AIDS-defining illness)
Tx for mild-moderate hypercalcemia in malignancy
Bisphosphonates (incl. zolendronic acid)
Zolendronic acid: class?
Bisphosphonate
Ethylene glycol poisoning: presentation (3)
*
1) Renal failure
2) Hypocalcemia
3) Anion-gap metabolic acidosis
Ethylene glycol poisoning: antidote
* (antidote for?)
Fomepizole
Multiple ring-enhancing lesions in head CT of AIDS pt: dx?
Toxoplasmosis
Cerebral toxo:
-Ppx
-Tx
-TMP-SMX
-Sulfadiazine & pyrimethamine
Tx for neurocysticercosis
Albendazole
Abx for inflamed, fluctuant cervical lymph node
Dicloxacillin
Thiazolidinediones (2)
Pioglitazone
Rosiglitazone
Pioglitazone & rosiglitazone: class?
Thiazolidinediones
Tx of cervicofacial actinomycosis
High-dose PCN x6-12 weeks
Appearance of Actinomyces
*
Gram-positive branching bacteria
PMNs filled with bacteria on gram stain: dx?
CGD
Adenosine deaminase deficiency causes?
* (defect)
SCID
Type of immune deficiency in DiGeorge syndrome
T-cell dysfunction
Phenytoin toxicity: prsentation (3)
*
1) Horizontal nystagmus
2) Cerebellar ataxia
3) Confusion
Lithium toxicity: presentation (4)
* (SEs of what?)
1) Tremor
2) Hyperreflexia
3) Ataxia
4) Seizures
Most common valvular manifestation of RF
Mitral stenosis
% within
-1 SD
-2 SDs
-3 SDs
-68%
-95%
-99.7%
Precocious pubarche with signs of severe androgen excess: dx?
Precocious pseudo-puberty, 2/2 sex steroid excess - gonadotropin-independent process (e.g. late-onset CAH)
Cervical spondylosis
-Presentation (3)
-Radiography
-Chronic neck pain, limited neck rotation, arm numbness
-Osteophytes (bony spurs)
Measles
-Type of virus
-Initial sx
-Spread of rash
*
-Paramyxovirus
-Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivitis
-Face --> body
Rubella: type of virus
Togavirus
Raloxifene
-Indication
-SE
-Osteoporosis
-DVT
Drugs causing pancreatitis:
-Diuretics
-IBD
-Immunosuppressive
-Sz/BPD
-AIDS
-Abx
-Furosemide, thiazides
-Sulphasalazine, 5-ASA
-Azathioprine, L-asparaginase
-VPA
-Didanosine, pentamidine
-Metronidazole, tetracycline
Dysphagia for solids and liquids: dx?
* (type of dysphagia)
Motility d/o
Dysphagia for solids progressing to liquids: dx?
* (type of dysphagia)
Obstructing lesion
Serous otitis media
-Definition
-Pneumatic otoscopy findings
-Found in
*
-Middle ear effusion w/o infection
-Dull, hypomobile TM
-HIV/AIDS
Cauda equina syndrome
-What is affected
-Presentation (4)
*
-Spinal nerve roots
1) Saddle anesthesia
2) Bowel/bladder dysfxn
3) Low back pain
4) LE motor/sensory dysfxn
Simple partial sz: presentation
No loss of consciousness
Partial sz with secondary generalization: presentation
Includes tonic-clonic activity
Trichenellosis: presentation
*
GI sx followed by periorbital edema, myositis and eosinophilia
Malignancy arising in chronic wounds or scars
SCC
IV-drug related endocarditis
-MC organism
-Tx
-Staph
-Vanc
Murmurs that increase with inspiration
Right-sided
Skin finding in sarcoid
Erythema nodosum
Polymyalgia rheumatica: association?
Giant cell arteritis
Odynophagia for hot and cold food: dx?
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Tx of NMS (3)
*
Dantrolene
Bromocriptine
Amantadine
Oxalate absorption increased in?
Crohn's dz and other causes of fat malabsorption
Babesiosis
-Region
-Common manifestation
-Increased risk among?
-Tx
-NE US
-Hemolytic anemia
-Splenectomized
-Quinine-clindamycin or atovaquone-azithromycin
Q fever
-Organism
-Most common victims
*
-Coxiella burnetii
-Meat processors and veterinarians
Cysticercosis: organism
* (syndrome)
Taenia solium
Presentation of duodenal atresia
*
Bilious vomiting in first 1-2 days of life
Duodenal atresia: XR finding
"Double bubble" (air trapped in stomach and duodenum
Pyloric stenosis: presentation
Non-bilious vomiting at 3-6 weeks of age
Classic presentation of rubella
Low-grade fever
Sub-occipital and posterior auricular LAD
Rash, face --> body
Dopamine pathway affecting prolactin
*
Tuberoinfundibular pathway
Tx of SCFE
Internal fixation of hip with pins
Tx of Legionella (2)
Macrolide (eg azithromycin)
Newer fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin)
MCC conductive hearing loss in adults
Otosclerosis
Rinne Test
-Conductive hearing loss
-Normal
-Sensorineural hearing loss
* (Rinne test - type of hearing loss)
- Bone > air
- Air > bone
- AIr > bone
Type of hearing loss caused by abx toxicity
Sensorineural
Type of hearing loss in Meniere's dz
Sensorineural
Presbycusis: type of hearing loss
Sensorineural
Chronic otitis media: type of hearing loss
Conductive
Acoustic neuroma: type of hearing loss
Sensorineural
Henoch-Schonlein purpura: mechanism
*
IgA-mediated small vessel vasculitis
Henoch-Schonlein purpura: presentation (4)
*
1) Purpuric rash (lower legs, buttocks, arms)
2) Arthralgias
3) Abdominal pain
4) Renal dz
Renal histo finding in Goodpasture's
*
Linear IgG deposits on BM
Test for osteogenesis imperfecta
* (test for?)
Type I collagen assay
Live childhood vaccines
MMR
Varicella
EKG finding in pericardial effusion
* (seen in?)
Electrical alternans
NF2: classic features (2)
*
Bilateral acoustic neuromas
Cataracts
Indinavir: class
Protease inhibitor
Indinavir: SE
* (SE of?)
Crystal-induced nephropathy
Didanosine: SE
Pancreatitis
Tenderness in anatomic snuff box: dx?
* (presentation)
Scaphoid fracture
Management of scaphoid fracture
-Displaced
-Non-displaced
-ORIF
-Cast immobilization x6-12 weeks
Tx of hyperCa of immobilization
Bisphosphonates
Amnio findings with NTD (2)
* (dx with amnio findings)
-Increased AFP
-Increased acetylcholinesterase
Quadruple screen in Down syndrome
*
Low MSAFP
Low estriol
High beta-HCG
High inhibin A
Analgesic nephropathy: type of damage
Papillary necrosis
Tx for Reiter syndrome (reactive arthritis)
NSAIDs
Tx of
-Acute gout
-Chronic hyperuricemia
-Colchicine
-Allopurinol
Imipramine: class
TCA
Mech of sodium bicarb for TCA overdose
Narrows QRS by alleviating cardio-depressant action on Na channels
Methods for detecting level of HER2 expression
FISH or IHC
Dx test for pyloric stenosis
Abdominal US
Type I Gaucher
-Deficiency
-Radiologic finding
-Histologic finding
*
-Acid beta-glucosidase
-Erlenmeyer flask deformity of distal femur
-Wrinkled paper cells
Niemann-Pick: deficiency
*
Sphingomyelinase deficiency
GM1 gangliosidosis: defiency
*
Beta-galactosidase deficiency
GM2 gangliosidoses
-Examples (2)
-Deficiency
* (class)
-Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff
-Hexosaminidase
Farber disease: deficiency
* (dz)
Ceramidase deficiency