Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prince Henry the Navigator
He set up a research center in southern Europe. He invited sailors, cartographers, and shipbuilder to help him explore the world.
Ferdinand Magellan
He led the first expedition to sail around the world.
Sir Francis Drake
He circumnavigated the whole world.
Christopher Columbus
Discovered the Americas in 1492. He was the first European to sail west in search for a water route to Asia.
He stated that the sun and the planets moved around the Earth in circular paths. It was called a geocentric universe, or Earth - centered universe.
Bartolomeu Dias
He reached the southern tip of Africa, and named it the Cape of Good Hope.
Henry Hudson
Discovered & explored the Hudson River & Hudson Bay.
John Cabot
He discovered Newfoundland & Canada. Disappeared on his second voyage.
Jacques Cartier
Discovered & explored St. Lawrence River.
Hernan Cortes
He marched across Mexico, and took control of the Aztec Empire.
Giovanni de Verrazano
He mapped the coast of North Carolina to Newfoundland, but did not find a path to Asia.
Vasco da Gama
He rounded the tip of Africa, raced across the Indian Ocean, and landed on India's coast. He did covered a route to East Asia. He was also the first European to do so.
Francisco Pizarro
He conquered the Incan Empire, and claimed most of South America for Spain.
Thomas Hobbes
He said humans are naturally cruel, selfish, and greedy, so the king should have absolute power.
John Locke
He said people have a right to elect their government, and that the parliament should have power over the king.
Baron de Montesquieu
He formed the three branches of government that had separate, but equal power: executive, legislative & judicial.
Cesare Beccaria
He said criminals should not be tortured, they should receive fair treatment, including a trial.
Abigail Adams
She supported womens rights for education, and the movement for independence from England. She said women will not obey any laws in which they don't have a voice. She was married to John Adams, one of the leaders of the American Revolution.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He was a French Man who said people need to be in touch with their feelings. He said people rely too much on reason to solve problems. Government should be based on a social contract between the people - An Elected Body of Representatives.
Mary Wollstonecraft
She was the founder of the womens' movement, She sought to eliminate inequality in education. She claimed all humans have reason, and wrote a book called A Vindication of Rights of Women.
Henry VII of England
He broke away from the Catholic Church, and made his kingdom Protestant. Spain was strongly Catholic, so the Dutch people rebelled against them.
Elizabeth I of England
She helped the Dutch fight Spain. She gave a license to privateers, allowing them to attack ships of other countries.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
He led 13 ships on a voyage back to India, after Vasco da Gama, for the Portuguese. The Portuguese fought a war against the Muslim merchants in the Indian Ocean.
Andreas Vesalius
He was a Flemish Doctor who began dissecting dead human bodies for research. He published a book called "On the Structure of the Human Body." In the book he presented a detailed account of the human body that replaced many of Galen's ideas.
He was the greatest thinker of the time, and he disliked the Roman Cathoic Church. He wrote many novels, plays, letters, and essays, that brought him fame and wealth.He blamed church leaders for keeping knowledge from people in order to maintain the Church's power. He opposed the government for supporting one religion and forbidding others. He thought people should be free to choose their own beliefs, and he supported deism.
Columbian Exchange
Christopher Columbus began this idea of trading with the world, from Europe, when he brought back goods from the Americas to Europe in 1492. There was a global exchange of people, goods, technology, ideas, and even diseases.
It is the idea that a country gains power by compiling a large supply of gold and silver.
A system in which people, rather than governments, own property and make goods. Individuals and private companies owned by individuals, decide what products to buy and sell.
Cottage Industry
It asked peasants to make wool & the peasants liked this because they could do work from home.
joint-stock company
They were businesses that people can invest in by buying a hare of that company. These shares are called stocks.
Commercial Revolution
To increase trade, Europeans set up colonies and created joint-stock companies.
supply and demand
supply - the things people want to sell and the price they can afford to sell it
demand - what people want to buy and the price they are willing to pay for it
A large, solid-hoofed, herbivorous quadruped, equus caballus, domesticated since prehistoric times, bred in a number of varieties, and used for carrying or pulling loads, for riding, and for racing. It was found in America and brought to Europe.
Ancient Greek devices that could be used to find latitude.
It was invented by the Chinese, and it helped navigators find magnetic north.
The Portuguese set up large sugarcane plantations along the Brazilian coast. They brought enslaved people from Africa to work there. Soon half the population of Brazil was made up of enslaved Africans.
Ships that combined the use of many masts, smaller sails, and new types of rudder to make ships go faster.
Spanish Armada
The huge fleet of Spain that fought wars one sea.
A settlement of people living in a new territory controlled by their home countries. Colonists produce goods for their country, if there is not enough, or if there is a greater demand.
a starchy plant tuber that is one of the most important food crops;it is cooked and eaten as a vegetable. It was discovered in the Americas and brought to Europe.
Goods exchanged...Americas to Europe, Asia, and Africa
Avocados, beans, cassava, cocoa beans, corn, disease peanuts, peppers, pineapples, vanilla, turkey, tomatoes, tobacco, sweet potatoes, squash, quinine, pumpkins & potatoes
Goods exchanges...Europe, Asia, and Africa to Americas
Turnips, sugarcane, grains, wheat, rice, barley, oats, pears, peaches, onions, olives, livestock, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, honeybees, bananas, citrus fruits, coffee beans, disease & grapes
geocentric universe
Earth-centered universe
heliocentric universe
Sun-centered universe
scientific method
An orderly way of collecting and analyzing evidence.
An explanation of how or why something happens.
Invented by Galileo & Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit in the early 1700' in Germany/Italy. It's purpose is to measure the weather outside by reading the height of the mercury.
It was invented by Evangelista Torricelli in the 1640's in Italy. The height of the mercury measures the pressure of the atmosphere.
The belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge, founded by a Frenchman Rene Descartes.
Frenchman Rene Descartes
He said reason was the chief source of knowledge, and wrote a book called Discourse on Method.
William Harvey
He was the first one to prove blood existed.
Robert Hooke
He discovered the existence of cells using microscope.
Nicolaus Copernicus
He believed that we had a heliocentric universe or a sun-centered universe.
Isaac Newton
He was an English mathematician discovered the Laws of Motion and gravity. He combined the ideas of Copenicus, Kepler & Galileo.
An Egyptian-born astronomer who said we have a geocentric universe, or a earth-centered universe.
Johannes Kepler
He supported the heliocentric universe of Copernicus, but said planets move in ellipses or oval paths, not circular paths.
Galileo Galilei
He said the objects fall at the same speed no matter what. He also contributed to the inventions of the telescope & thermometer.
Robert Boyle
He was an Irish scientist who proved all substances are made up of basic elements that cannot be broken down.
Antoine Lavoisier
He proved that materials need oxygen to burn.
Marie Lavoisier
Scientist who was married to Antoine Lavoisier, and helped him work.
Francis Bacon
An English thinker who developed the scientific method. First, you develop a hypothesis, then create an experiment, and then prove it true or false.