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173 Cards in this Set

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Intrapersonal Communication

Communication with ourselves via the dialogue that goes on in our heads

Interpersonal Communication

Communication with other people that ranges from the highly personal to the highly impersonal

Group Communication

Communication among members of a team or a collective about topics such as goals, strategies, and conflict

Mass Communication

Communication generated by media organizations that is designed to reach large audiences (TV, Radio, Print Media)

Public Communication

Communication in which one person gives a speech to other people, most often in a public setting. This speech has predetermined goals and is about a topic that affects a larger community.

Speaker

A person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message

Message

Information conveyed by the speaker to the audience

Encoding

Translating ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and gestures

Decoding

Translating words, sounds and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message

Audience

Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses

Channel

Means by which the message is conveyed

Noise

Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated

Feedback

Verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker

Context

Environmental or situation in which a speech occurs

Audience Centered

Considerate of the positions, beliefs, values, and needs of an audience

Difference between public speaking and other forms of communication

Public speaking stands apart from other forms of communication because speakers recognize the central role of their audience. Speakers speak to audiences, and without them, we are engaged in public speaking. In public speaking, the make up of the audience directly influences the speakers message.

Communication Apprehension

Our nervousness before a speech, the level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.

Trait Anxiety

Apprehension about communicating with others in any situation

State or Situational Anxiety

Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation

Public Speaking Anxiety

The anxiety we feel when we learn we have to give a speech or take a public speaking course

Help us build confidence as a speaker

Knowing why we become nervous

Systematic Desensitization

A technique for reducing anxiety that involves teaching your body to feel calm and relaxed rather than fearful during your speeches

Interference

Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message

Listenable Speech

Speech that is considerate and delivered in an oral style

Considerate Speech

Speech that eases the audience's burden of processing information

Jargon

Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity

Slang

Informal nonstandard vocabulary, usually made up of arbitrarily changed the words

Colloquialism

Local or regional informal dialect or expression

Euphemism

Word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant

Gender-Inclusive language

Language recognizing that both women and men are active participants in the world

Culturally Inclusive Language

Language that respectfully recognizes the differences among the many cultures in our society

Spotlighting

Practice of highlighting a person's race or ethnicity (or sex, sexual orientation, physical disability, and the like) during a speech

Noninclusive language

Listening can break down when you use noninclusive language, or words that seem to refer only to certain people

Verbal Clutter

Extra words that pad sentences and claims but don't add meaning

Careful Listener

Listener who overcomes listener interference to better understand a speaker's message

Critical Listener

Listener who listens for the accuracy of a speech's content and the implications of a speaker's mesage

Ethical Listener

Listener who considers the moral impact of a speaker's message on one's self and one's community

Brainstorming

Process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevence

Brainstorming by free association

Unstructured

Brainstorming by clustering

Visual way to brain storm with a cluster diagram

Brainstorming by categories

Provides structure

Brainstorming by technology

Popular search engines can help

General Purpose

Speech's broad goal: to inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept

Specific Purpose

Focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech

Thesis Statement

Statement that summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main ideas, assumptions, or arguments you want to express in your speech

Speaking Environment

Time and place in which a speaker will speak

Master Statuses

Significant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person's identity in almost all social situations

Standpoint

Perspective from which a person views and evaluates society

Attitude

General positive or negative feeling a person has about something

Belief

Person's idea of what is real, not real, true, or not true

Value

Person's idea of what is good, worthy, or important

Ethnocentrism

Belief that our own cultural perspectives, norms, and ways of organizing society are superior to others

Finding information at the library

There you have access to librarians, databases, indexes, journals, magazines, newspapers, books, documents, etc.

Boolean Operators

Words you can use to create specific phrases that broaden or narrow your search on the Internet

Database

Collections of information stored electronically so they are easy to find an retrieve

Bibliographic Database

Database that indexes publishing data for books, periodical articles, government reports, statistics, patents, research reports, conference proceedings, and dissertations

Full-text Database

Database that indexes the complete text of newspapers, periodicals, encyclopedias, research reports, court cases, books, and the like

Abstract

Summary of the text in an article or publication

Index

Alphabetical listing of the topics discussed in a specific publication, along with the corresponding year, volume, and page numbers

Plagiarism

Presenting another person's words or ideas as your own

Patchwork Plagiarism

Constructing a complete speech that you present as your own from portions of several different source

Global Plagiarism

Stealing an entire speech from a single source and presenting it as your own

Incremental Plagiarism

Presenting select portions from a single speech as your own

Citing Sources

It is ethical and adds credibility to your ideas

Rules for citing sources

Give credit to others, give specific information about your source (name, publication, date), deliver all information accurately

Main Points

Most important ideas you address in your speech

Chronological Pattern

Pattern of organization that traces a sequence of events or ideas

Spatial Pattern

Pattern of organization that arranges ideas in terms of location or direction

Causal Pattern

Pattern of organization that describes a cause-and-effect relationship between ideas or events

Problem-Solution Pattern

Pattern of organization that identifies a specific problem and offers a possible solution

Topical Pattern

Pattern of organization that allows the speaker to divide a topic into subtopics, each of which addresses a different aspect of the larger topic

Connectives

Word or phrase used to link ideas in a speech

Transition

Phrase that indicates a speaker is finished with one idea and is moving on to a new one

Internal Preview

Statement in the body of a speech that details what the speakers plans to discuss next

Internal Summary

Statement in the body of a speech that summarizes a point a speaker has already discussed

Signposts

Simple word or statement that indicates where you are in your speech or highlights an important idea

Preparation Outline

Detailed outline a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations of the speech.

Subpoint

Point in a speech that develops an aspect of a main point

Sub-Subpoint

Point in a speech that develops an aspect of a subpoint

Coordination

Process of arranging points into successive levels, with the points on a specific level having equal importance

Subordination

Process of ranking ideas in order from the most to the least important

Speaking Outline

Condensed form of a preparation outline that you use when speaking

Introduction

1. Catch the audience's attention


2. Reveal the topic to the audience


3. Establish credibility with the audience


4. Preview the speech for the audience

Preview

Brief overview in the introduction of a speech of each of the main points in the speech

Rhetorical Question

Question, used for effect, that an audience isn't supposed to answer out loud but rather in their own minds

Conclusion

1. Bring your speech to an end


2. Reinforce your thesis statement

Summary

Concise restatement of the main points at the end of a speech

Language

System of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate

Symbol

Word or phrase spoken by a speaker

Referent

Object, concept, or event a symbol represents

Thought or Reference

Memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event

The Semantic Triangle of Meaning

Symbol > Thought > Referent

Concrete Language

Language that refers to a tangible object - a person, place, or thing

Abstract Language

Language that refers to ideas or concepts but not to specific objects

Idiom

Fixed, distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual words

Oral Style

Speaking style that reflects the spoken rather than the written word

Simile

Figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things using the word like or as

Metaphor

Figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something else

Mixed Metaphor

Metaphor that makes illogical comparisons between two or more things

Personification

Figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects, or concepts

Rhythm

Arrangement of words into patterns so the sound of the words together enhance the meaning of a phrase

Parallelism

Arrangement of related words so they are balanced or of related sentences so they have identical structures

Repetition

Repeating keywords or phrases at the beginning or endings of sentences or clauses to create rhythm

Alliteration

Repetition of initial sounds of two or more words in a sentence or phrase

Mnemonic Device

Verbal device that makes information easier to remember

Antithesis

Placement of words and phrases in contrast or opposition to one another

Delivery

Action or manner of speaking to an audience

Extemporaneous Speech

Speech that is carefully prepared and practiced from brief notes rather than from memory or a written manuscript

Conversational Style

Speaking style that is more formal than everyday conversation but remains spontaneous and relaxed

Impromptu Speech

Speech that is not planned or prepared in advance

Manuscript Speech

Speech that is read to an audience from a written text

Memorized Speech

Speech that has been written out, committed to memory, and given word for word

Vocal Variety

Changes in the volume , rate, and pitch of a speaker's voice that affect the meaning of the words delivered

Volume

Loudness of a speaker's voice

Rate

Speed at which a speaker speaks

Pitch

Highness or lowness of a speaker's voice

Inflection

Manipulation of pitch to create certain meanings or moods

Monotone

Way of speaking in which a speaker does not alter her or his pitch

Pauses

Hesitations and brief silences in speech or conversation

Vocalized Pause

Pauses that speakers fill with words or sounds like "um", "er" or "uh"

Articulation

Physical process of producing specific speech sounds to make language intelligible

Pronunciation

Act of saying words correctly according to the accepted standards of a language

Dialect

Pattern of speech that is shared by an ethnic group or people from specific geographical locations

Personal Appearance

Way speakers dress, groom, and present themselves physically

Eye Contact

Visual contact with another person's eyes

Facial Expression

The movement of your eyes, eyebrows, and mouth to convey reactions and emotions

Posture

Way speakers position and carry their bodies

Gestures

Movements, usually of the hands but sometimes of the full body, that express meaning and emotion or offer clarity to a message

Proxemics

Use of space during communication

Why visual aids are important

1. Visual aids help gain and maintain audience attention


2. Visual aids help audience recall information


3. Visual aids help explain and clarify information


4. Visual aids may increase persuasiveness and enhance credibility


5. Visual aids may reduce nervousness

Speeches about processes

Informative speech that describe how something is done, how something comes to be what it is, or how something works

Speech about an event

Informative speech that describes or explains a significant, interesting, or unusual occurence

Speech about a place or person

Informative speech that describes a significant, interesting, or unusual place or person

Speech about an object

Informative speech about anything that is tangible, that can be perceived by the senses

Speech about a concept

Informative speech about an abstraction, something you can't perceive with your senses, such as an idea, a theory, a principle, a worldview, or a belief

Invitational Speaking

Type of public speaking in which a speaker enters into a dialogue with an audience to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or articulate beliefs and values

Public deliberation

Engaging in a process that involves the careful weighing of information and views

Invitational Environment

Environment in which the speaker's highest priority is to understand, respect, and appreciate the range of possible positions on an issue, even if those positions are quite different from his or her own

Condition of Equality

Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to acknowledge that all audience members hold equally valid perspectives worthy of exploration

Condition of Value

Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to recognize the inherent value of the audience's views, although those views may differ from the speaker's views

Condition of Self-Determination

Condition of an invitational environment that requires the speaker to recognize that people know what is best for them and have the right to make choices about their lives based on this knowledge

Tips for giving effective invitational speeches

1. Use invitational language


2. Allow time for discussion, exploration, deliberation


3. Show respect for diverse positions

Five Patterns of Reasoning

Induction, deduction, cause, analogy, and sign

Inductive Reasoning

Process of reasoning that uses specific instances, or examples, to make a claim about a general conclusion

Deductive Reasoning

Process of reasoning that uses familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim

Causal Reasoning

Process of reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-and-effect relationship

Analogical Reasoning

A process of reasoning by way of comparison and similarity that implies that because two things resemble each other in one respect, they also share similarities in another respect

Reasoning by Sign

Process of reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened

Fallacy

Argument that seems valid but is flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning

Ad Hominem Fallacy

Argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather his or her argument

Bandwagon Fallacy

Argument that suggests something has merit because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it

Either-Or Fallacy

Argument that presents only two options - "Either A or B" - when actually more than two options exist; also known as false dilemma

False Cause Fallacy

Argument that mistakes a chronological relationship for a causal relationship

Persuasive Speech

Speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience's thoughts, feelings, or actions

Question of Fact

Question that addresses whether something is verifiably true or not

Question of Value

Question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action, or belief

Question of Policy

Question that addresses the best course of action or solution to a problem

Gain immediate action

Encourage an audience to engage in a specific behavior to take a specific action

Call to action

Explicitly request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior

Gain passive aggreement

Asks audience members to adopt a new position without also asking them to act in support of that position

Problem-Solution Organization

Organizational pattern that focuses on persuading an audience that a specific problem exists and can be solved or minimized by a specific solution

Problem-Cause-Solution Organization

Organizational pattern that focuses on identifying a specific problem, the cause of that problem, and a solution to the problem

Causal Organization

Organizational pattern that is based on a cause-and-effect relationship that can develop in two ways: moving from cause to effect or from effect to cause

Narrative organization

Organizational pattern that uses one or more stories to construct an argument

Comparative advantages organization

Organizational pattern that illustrates the advantages of one solution over others

Monroe's motivated sequence

Process used to persuade audiences by gaining attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying that need, visualizing beneficial results, and calling for action

Credibility

An audience's perception of a speakers competence and character

Competence

An audience's view of a speaker's intelligence, expertise, and knowledge os a subject

Character

An audience's view of a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for his or her well-being

Initial Credibility

The credibility a speaker has before giving a speech

Derived Credibility

Credibility a speaker develops during a speech

Terminal Credibility

Credibility given to a speaker at the end of a speech

Common Ground

Similarities, shared interests, and mutual perspectives held by a speaker and his or her audience