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56 Cards in this Set

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From what philosophical tradition did symbolic interactionism (SI) grow out of?
What are the basic assumptions of Symbolic interactionism?
-Reality created
-Knower implicated in knowledge
-Progressive role of science
How did George Herbert Mead develop SI (3 themes)?
1. Importance of language and significant symbols
-Significant symbol- word or gesture meaningful to self as well as to someone else

2. Social origins and dynamics of mind
-Development of mind is social

3. The processual and creative nature of human action (process and agency)
-Agency- free will, choice
According to Blumer, what are the 3 guiding assumptions of SI?
1. People act toward things on the basis of their MEANINGS those things have for them

2. These meanings derive from their INTERACTIONS with others.

3. These meanings are handled in, sustained or altered through an interpretive process.
ex. Paper and chair -> weapons and shield
Herbert Blumer
Coined "symbolic interactionism"
How are our actions constrained?
Actions constrained by language, culture, and social hierarchies
What is society?
Symbolic interaction
What is the role of emotions
Emotions are central to meaning behavior, and the self
What should be the fundamental unit of social psychology?
The Social Act (or Joint Action)
What is the Social Act or Joint Action?
What people do together
What are the 3 key features of joint action?
1. Routine and repetitive
2. Connected to previous contexts and forms of conduct
3. Linked to larger and complex networks of actions
ex. Telling racist jokes->Larger network of actions -> Treating races differently
What is SI's primary methodology?
-Naturalistic Inquiry (Qualitative)
-Usually involves in-depth interviewing and/or ethnography
Why do interactionists useSI methodology?
Enables an examination of meanings and joint action
What are 2 phases of SI?
1. Exploration (data collection) ex. Interviewing
2. Inspection (data analysis) ex. Analyzing, finding patterns
How might SI be relevant and beneficial to your life?
-Helps to understand that we possess agency, but it is constrained
-Helps understand how actions are consequential, which has ethical implications
How do interactionists view socialization?
Ongoing interactive process through which individuals develop identities and learn the ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize our society
What are Mead's 3 stages of development and how does the generalized other fit in?
1. Preparatory stage- imitation in need of a reaction/ reward
2. Play stage- involves taking on roles. ex. Putting baby doll to sleep, dressing up as Batman
3. Game Stage- lot of people all with a different role to play.

Generalized other: develops during the game stage. Sense of how the larger community views you as a human being.
- perspectives of network of others or community as a whole
-Gendered concept
Is socialization completely predictable? Does it lead to conformity? Why or why not?
What are the components of the dialectical self?
The I and the me.
What are the phases of the looking glass self?
1. Imagine self from another's perspective
2. Imagine judgment
3. Self-feeling (pride/shame)
I: Impulse, what I want to do
Me: How others may view my actions
--> Shame is a method of self-control
What's the difference between primary and secondary socialization?
Training- secondary training.
What are agents of socialization and reference groups?
Agents of Socialization ex. Mrs. Wilkinson, Billy's Dad, or even self, peers
How do young children learn to adopt and display gender identity?
Learn to categorize others on the basis of gender, modeling, parents use phrase "Big Boy" or "Big Girl".
What elements of masculinity are emphasized in boys' peer cultures?
-Emotional Control
-In-Group Loyalty
What elements of femininity are emphasized in girls' peer cultures?
-Emotional Intimacy
What is gendered borderwork and transgression?
Borderwork- Cross but reinforce gender borders. Ex. Cooties, Chase

Transgression- ex. competitive girls, girls taking boys traits, boys having girls' traits
What is a status passage? How do they involve rites of passage, turning points, and epiphanies?
Status passage- moving from one status to another.

Rites of passage, turning points, and epiphanies may or may not accompany every status passage

Ex. of status passages- married, graduated, 13- teenager, change in identity. Civilian to prisoner, becoming parent.

Rites of passage- Ceremony or ritual that marks change from one status to another.

Turning points- Something that lead you to a new status. Ex. Failing class- moving from school. Taking class- finding profession

Epiphanies- Aha! Moment.

BE-standing up to father, interview
What are the three phases of status passages?
1. Separation- involves separating from previous status. Ex. high school graduation -> summer to become college student

2. Liminal- Phase between statuses. ex. College graduate looking for work.

3. Incorporation- Incorporating new status into who you are. Ex. New college student -> Going to class, making friends
What is "playful terrorism" against the ceremonial order? (or "ceremonial terrorism")?
Strategic rule breaking or "meaningful non adherence" ex. Child taking clothes off
Does ceremonial deviance undermine the stability of the ceremonial order? Why or why not?
Ceremonial deviance helps stability. Why?
-Reminds adults of rules
-Intergenerational transmission
How did Feagin and Van Ausdale conduct their research?
Debi observed students for 11 months
In what five ways do children use racial and ethnic concepts?
1. Exclude others
2. Include others
3. Define self
4. Define others
5. Control others
How do children use racial and ethnic concepts to exclude and include others?
-ex. Sarah and Rita exclude Elizabeth due to language (an ethnic marker)
-Chinese boy INCLUDES by teaching Chinese symbols
How do children use racial and ethnic concepts to define oneself and others?
Telling black girl she couldn't paint palms pink
How do children use racial and ethnic concepts to control others?
ex. The Asian girl could not pull wagon
What does the study (Feagin and Van Ausdale) contribute to traditional theories or models or early socialization?
-Previous theory suggests that before age 7, children can't understand race
-Study shows children as young as 3 interactionally use racial and ethnic categories in their everyday lives
What does Cahill seek to understand and how does he go about investigating?
Research question: How are children socialized into the religion of civility?

"Religion of civility"- Has rituals

Methods- Observations, fieldnotes, investigative patterns
What strategies do caretakers use to socialize children to public civility? What strategies are most frequently used? Are they effective?
1. Instruction:
-Rule statements ("It's not polite to stare!")
-Commands ("stop!")

2. Coaching:
-Prompts ("Say you're sorry")
-Priming moves (What do you say?")
What does it mean to say children are waiting for their quota of Mana?
They are not treated as sacred, but are rather treated as:
1. Nonpersons
2. Sources of amusement
How did Lareau collect data?
-Interviews and observations (school/home) of 8-10 year old children and their families ex. Same gender/race is positive, Kids didn't want researcher to leave, liked attention
How did race and social class shape parents' approaches to childrearing?
-Class: Middle class- concerted cultivation: foster childrens' talents through organized leisure and extensive reasoning.
Working class and poor- natural growth: foster children's talents by providing appropriate conditions, allowing children to control leisure, and using directives

-Does not make difference. Class- upper class black same strategies as upper class white
-One significant difference in the message between races:
--African American families- race does matter, may have to work twice as hard. White- may have privileges due to color of skin
What were the differences between the 2 approaches to childrearing (concerted cultivation and natural growth) with regard to the key elements of and the organization of daily life?
Key elements:
-Concerted cultivation: actively fosters and assesses child's talents, skills.
Natural growth: cares for child and allows child to grow
What were the differences between 2 approaches with regard to language and social connections?
-Concerted cultivation: Reasoning, child contestation, negotiation.
Natural Growth: directives, child acceptance

Social Connections:
-CC: weak extended family ties, homogenous age groups
-NG: strong extended family ties, heterogeneous age groups
What were the differences between the 2 approaches to childrearing with regard to interventions and consequences?
-Interventions in Institutions:
CC: criticism and intervention, training child to intervene
NG: dependence on institutions, powerlessness/frustration, conflict between home/school childrearing

CC: emerging sense of entitlement
NG: emerging sense of constraint. "Bruising moments"- someone making fun of them, on free lunch- may not feel as good as others
How did Milkie conduct her research? What groups did she sample?
Surveyed 2 high schools- urban and racially diverse and white and suburban. Media issues as well as self-esteem. Follow up interviews.
Who read the magazines? How did they describe the magazines to others?
Both black and white girls read magazines- 17 and Teen. However, most were white in the magazines. 95% of white girls read it and 85% of black girls
What did they like and didn't like about the magazines? What would they change?
Like: Quizzes, had something to relate to
Dislike: Models unrealistic, Change: "Normal" girls in magazines
What are social comparisons? Why did the white girls but not the black girls use these magazines for social comparison? How did this shape how the girls felt about themselves?
Different than reflected appraisals. Comparing grade to average grade. White girls compared themselves to people like them. Black community found a shapely figure to be more ideal than slender.
What are reflected appraisals? How do reflected appraisals shape how white and black girls evaluated themselves? What do boys have to do with it?
Boys state what they like. Set the standard.
How does Milkie's study contribute to our understanding of how the media shapes the self?
Does not consider people as agents with subjectivity. Depends on who we are in relation to. We change the way we feel about ourselves. Power of relations.
According to Ezzell, what does it mean to live in a patriarchial culture?
Male-dominated, male-identifiable, and male-centered. Males most often interrupt women, pay scale, rape statistics.
What is a rape culture?
It is everywhere, pervasive, prevalent, and normalized through attitudes about gender, sex, and sexuality.
How are men and women affected by the "rape culture"?
Women carry keys, are always conscious of it. Men do not see women as humans, communication issues.
How do sociologists view media violence and sexist media?
Boys get most of their sex information from pornography. Men believe real sex could never be that good. ENABLING CONDITIONS.
In what 3 ways does the pornography industry directly affect children? According to Ezzell, what are children (and adults) learning when they watch pornography?
-"Childifying" women. Getting younger- looking women to act in porn. Enabling conditions.
In what way to video games reflect and/or promote the rape culture?
Women are sex objects- enabling conditions.