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54 Cards in this Set

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social norms
rules that regulate human life, including social conventions, explicit laws, and implicit cultural standards
role
a given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior
entrapment
a gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort
group think
in close-knit groups, the tendency for all members to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress dissent
generational identity
the age range between 16 and 24 that represents the style and values of an adolescent's generation
diffusion of responsibility
in organized or anonymous groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions because they assume that others will do so
deindividuaition
in group or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality and the abdication of mindful action
altruism
the willingness to take selfless or dangerous action on behalf of others
social cognition
an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and other cognitive processes
attribution theory
the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and others' behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition
situational attributions
when we identify the use of an action as something in the situation or environment
dispositional attributions
when we identify the cause of an action as something in the person
fundamental attribution error
the tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate the influence of personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
self-serving bias
the tendency, in explaining one's own behavior, to take credit for one's good actions and rationalize one's mistakes
just-world hypothesis
the notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and justice is served; that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded
blaming the victim
a justification I which someone is victimized because they did something to provoke it
validity effect
the tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times
coercive persuasion
a persuasion technique quite similar to brainwashing
need for achievement
a learned motive to meet personal standards of success and excellence in a chosen area
thematic apperception test
a personality test that asks respondents to interpret a series of drawings showing ambiguous scenes of people; scored for various motives such as the needs for achievement, affiliation, or power
incentive pay
bonuses that are given upon the completion of a goal rather than as an automatic raise
glass ceiling
a barrier to promotion that is so subtle as to be transparent, yet strong enough to prevent advancement
culture
a program of shared rules that govern t=he behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most people of that community
cultural psychologists
psychologists who study the ways in which people are affected by the culture in which they live
cross-cultural psychologists
psychologists who compare members of different societies, searching for both their commonalities and their distinctive differences
body language
the nonverbal signals of body movement, posture, gesture, and gaze that people constantly express
conversational distance
how close people normally stand to one another when they are speaking
monochromic culture
cultures in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people
polychromic culture
cultures in which time is organized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules
collectivist culture
cultures in which the self is embedded in relationships, and who value group harmony over individual freedom
individualist culture
cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
social identity
the part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nations, culture, or ethnic group or with gender roles or other roles in society
ethnic identity
a person's identification with a religious or ethnic group
acculturation
the process by which members of groups that are minorities in a given society comes to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture
bicultural
when a person has strong ties to both their ethnicity and to the larger culture
assimilation
when people have weak feelings of ethnicity but a strong sense of acculturation
ethnic separatists
when people have a strong sense of ethnic identity but a weak sense of acculturation
marginal
when people are connected to neither their ethnicity nor the dominant culture
culture-free tests
tests that are nonverbal to accommodate various cultural responses
culture-fair tests
tests that incorporate knowledge and skills common to many different cultures
stereotype threats
a burden of doubt a person feels about his or her performance, due to negative stereotypes about his or her group's abilities
sex
refers to a person's anatomical identification
gender
the duties, rights, and behaviors a culture considers appropriate or inappropriate for males and females
production
matters pertaining the economy and the creation of food, clothing, and shelter
reproduction
matters pertaining to the bearing, raising, and maturing of children
cultures of honor
a culture in which apparently small disputes and trivial insults put a man's reputation for toughness on the line, requiring him to respond with violence to restore his status
ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion, is superior to all others
us-them thinking
when two groups perceive themselves to be in competition
stereotype threats
a summary impressions of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits
prejudice
consists of a negative stereotype and a strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group its individual members
symbolic racism
when one group focuses not on dislike of another group but on societal stereotypes
implicit prejudice
prejudice that is nonconscious, automatic, and unintentional, and hence a true measure of a person's "real" prejudice
implicit association
a test which taps into people's unconscious associations between a stimulus and its degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness
contact hypothesis
in an effort to reduce prejudice, both groups must have opportunities to work and socialize together