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110 Cards in this Set

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What is the cognitive component of predjudiced attitudes?

Why does it exist?
Stereotypes--beliefs about members of a group that may not be true

htey make things more preduictable and easier to procss.
What is the cognitive component of predjudiced attitudes?

Why does it exist?
Stereotypes--beliefs about members of a group that may not be true

htey make things more preduictable and easier to procss.
Define and give an example for the outgroup homogeneity bias. How was this proven?
The assumption that members of an outgroup are more similar to eachother than members of the ingroup./ In the accomplice study with robbery. White clerks more likly to be wrong identifying black accomplices and vice versa.
When does an exception to the outgroup homogeneity bias occur?
when members of a minority group emphasize their similarity when mobilizing against injustices.
Define and Gx for Prejudice
the affective component, a negative attituede or feeling toward an indiviudal based solely on that individuals membersip in a group,
Define and Gx for Discrimination
The behavioral component, unequal treatment of different people
Stereotype
the cognitive component, beleifs that associate groops of people with certain traits
Describe the bogus pipeline technique. The bonafide pipeline technique.
Why were they developed?
measurement of predudicial attidute in which participants are convinced they will be caught if they lie

relies on subtle priming and automatic processes to measure prejudice.

To combat the social desireability component of reporting prejudicial attitudes.
Bonafide pipeline study: whites attitudes towards blacks. What does it actually measure? How does this translate to behavior?
subliminal priming, rate next words as good or bad. Whites were faster at rating good words good when flashed beforehand with white face and slower with bad words. Reversed happened with black faces.

Implicit prejudice attitudes.//correlated with nonverbal measures of friendliness towards a black research assistant.
How does automatic categorization lead to prejudice?
tend to readily take any basis for grouping and use it as a basis for discrimination. An extention of our tendency to categorize all objects to make information processing more efficient.
What are the evolutionary explainations for prejudice and automatic categorization?

What is the realistic conflict theory
competition and conflict play an important role in the development of prejudice.

prejudice arises from competiton over scarce resources.
Describe the results of the robber's cave experiment of 11 year old boys at a summer camp. What did it test? what r the phases?
competition greatly increased prejudice and when had to cooperate together, prejudice was greatly decreased.

1. intragroup cooperaton-->seperation adn group cohesion
2. Intergroup competition
3. grps worked together to complete superordinate goals.
How can self esteem protection produce prejudice?
often, putting down another group helps people affirm their own self worth.
Describe the results of the self esteem threat study in which participants received negative or positive feedback and then evaluated an italian or jewish applicant. and then rated S.E
When participants were given positive feedback, there was no differnece btw ratings of itailians and jewish applicants. But when given negative feedback, jewish applicant given much lower score. even tho both were actually the same. Those who did this experienced increased self esteem.
Describe and Gx for the role of social learning in the origins of prejudice.
Classical conditioning-->associate neg event with outgroup

operant conditioning-->rewarded for neg attitudes

operational learning-->watching others
Describe and Gx for the stereotype threat
response of anxiety arising from the fear that the stereotyped persons performance might confirm the stereotype. Affects the performance of the individual.
Describe the Verbal SAT study results: participants were given questions similar to SAT and either diagnostic instrucitons (uncovering factors that underlie verbal reasoning ability) or non diagnostic.
the stereotyped groups got less questions correct in the diagnostic condition, there was no difference in the non diagnostic condition
Describe the results of the AP calculus test study when students were asked abt gender etiher before or after
Women did much worse when asked before than test ttan men asked before and men did better when asked before. When asked after, there was less of a difference, men didnt do as good as in otehr condition.
Is the stereotype present in children?
yes, even yuoung kids, those with low SES did worse in diagnostic condition. and high ses did better.
Does knowledge help in reducing the stereotype threat?

Why isnt this the self fulfilling prophecy?
Yes, when given teaching intervention about stereotypes, gender differences btw test results were more equal.

With SFP, the persons own expectaitons matter. But with this, the expectations reside in the target
Did desegregaton of schools
raise the academic performance of blacks
raise self esteem
reduce prejudicial attitudes
Yes
No, but didnt need to
In jigsaw classrooms where indivduals coordinated to work together.
When is the contact hypothesis more likly to reduce stereotypes and prejudicial attitudes?
When there is
Equal status
Positive contact
Outgrp members are perceved as typical
What is the extended contact hypothesis
Suggests that just knowing members of ones own group have formed close relations with members of another group and reduce prejudicial attitudes.
Whats the difference between prejudice and racism? Gx for each.
racism is a prejudiced attitude towards a particular race.
What is aversive racism? Discrimination? Stereotype?

What is a subtype?
Simultaneoulsy holding egalitarian values and negative feelings towards minorities.

categories that people use for individuals who do not fit a general stereotype.
Gx of a case where biased judgements based on stereotypes proved lethal
Define...
Categorization
social categorization
outgroup members
ingroup members located on p. 404
People r more likly to mistakely shoot at unarmed black suspects than unarmed white suspects.
What is the most widely discussed prejudice in america? which one is next?`

How do prejudicial attitudes towards arabs play out in todays society? what study demonstrated this?
Racial then gender.

In less visible more subtle ways. Milgrims lost letter technique, people were less likly to mail positive letter with an arab soundng name than regular but more likly when letter was bad (they had not won). people with low prejudice scores had no racial difference in likelihood of returning letter.
How is prejudice towards overweight people unique? Evidence?

Gx4 stigma by association.
people will openly admit and even act upon their negative attitudes towards obese people. College students reported that they would rather marry a cocaine user, shoplifter, embezzler, or blind person than an obese person.

rejection fo those who associate with stigmatized otthers
What is homophobia? How do these individuals respond to homoerotic videotapes?
excessive fear of homosexuals or homosexual behavior. with anxious and angry feelings. and gae homosexual confederates longer and more intense shocks.
What is a stigma? Gx
characterisics that r considered socially unacceptable
Gx4 in-group favoritism

Gx4 the minimal group effect
preferential treatment of, or more favorable attitudes towards people in ones own group.

people show favoritism towards ingrp members even when group membersip is randomly determined.
Describe the robbers cave state park study results

What was the role of superordinate goals?
in phase 1 separated the boys randomly in groups, form grp cohesiveness tasks.

By the end of the second stage the two grps of boys hated eachother. And it was much harder to reduce hostility than build it.

goals that can be acheived only by coopertating and working with others---> reduced hostility.
Describe the realistic conflict theory. How is it driven by evolutionary practices?
Competition over scarce resources leads to ingroup hostility and conflict.
Groups who readily form prejudices against the others adn act quickly were more likely to win ovthe competiton for scarce resources.
What does the discontinuity effect explain? How can it be reduced?
that grups are more extremem and often more hostile than indiviudals. Groups wont usually get along as well as indiviuals. by making the group members identifiable.
What is the contact hypothesis for prejudice? what does it imply? when does this work? When does it not work?
regular interacton between membrs of different groups reduces prejudice. That prejudice is caused, largely, by ignorance.

when contact is among people of equal status, when contact is positive, and when outgrp membrs are perceived as typical. When interactons are negative.
Stereotypes as kernels of truth. Evidnece?
as heuristics, can lead to errors, but mostly survive because they produce the right answer. Stereotypes are overgeneralized forms of some truth.

Stereotypes abt gender differences actually matched actual results in gender differences.
Salience
Scapegoat theory Gx, how else can this be expained?
Self-serving bias
being obvious or standing out.

blaming problems and misfortunes on outgroups contributes to negative attitudes toward these outgroups. that prejudice is a function of frustration leading to aggression

the tendency for people to take credit for successs but refuse blame for problems and failures.
What is the primary difference in the mental processes of prejudiced vs non prejudiced people?
Both are knowlegeable about stereotypes and come to mind when outgrp members are present, however on the nonprejudiced consiously ovveride the stereotypes
Describe the results of the discrimination in reverse study in the restaurant
when violating the dress code, a black couple entered the restaurant first, they were served 75% of the time. When a white couple entered first, they were served 30%
Jigsaw classroom. What r the effects?
a cooperative learning technique for reducing feelings of prejudice. Decreases racial prejudice and in creases academic performance.
Describe the concept of the self defeating prophecy in relation to baby faced males
Althoguh baby faced boys had higher grades, lower social class boys with baby faces committed more crimes.
What are the proposed reasons for the overall high self esteem of african americans?
People compare themselves to people within their own group. people often choose criteria to judge themselves based off in which they do well. External attribution use.
What is compliance?
behavior change in response to a direct request.
Define and Gx4 the foot in door compliance technique. Why or why not does this work? Give evidence using the Housewife question study that asked them what kind of soap they used first they if they could allow a team to inventory their products and go thru house.

What psychological process best explains this? What happens over time?
Where a small request (designed to gain 100% compliance) is followed by a large one.
What time is it?-->Do you have any money?
When there was both request much more agreed to the second, but when there was a second only request without the first, only about 20% agrred to it.

Cognitive dissonance (Need for consistency)
Bem's self perception theroy (look at self from stanpt of external observer, yes im a helpful person). Didnt matter if requestor was the same or not. Time is lenghtier.
Gx4 the door in the face technique. Give evidence (Juvenile delinquent and college study). Is it effective? If so, why? What happens over time?
When the initial request is so large that no one agrees to it and is followed by a request much smaller in comparison, resulting in it more likly to b granted.
Asked college students if they would serve as unpaid delinquency counslors, no one aggreed, then asked if they would b willing to take a grp of delinquents to the zoo for 2 hours. Much more agrred to the second request when there was the huge first one than the second by itslf. So yes, its effective
B/c of guilt, the contrast effect (first request makes 2nd look smaller), the reciprocity norm. Mattered wherther or not the second requestor was the same. Decays over time b/c of reciprocity norm
Gx4 the low balling technique. What does this rely on? Give the results of the united way poster college student study.
Salesman makes an attractive offer which is accepted but then is slowly reduced by additional costs or reduction of positive features. People tend to still accept the offer.
Commitment and consistency
Asked students if they would display posters but had to go to front desk to get them, manipulated when students were told. Much more still agreed when they were told the 2nd part after they initially agreed than told both at the same time
Gx4 the bait and switch technique
The bait is committing the person to buy the product but its not there, but people still feel committed to buy a product.
How does the legitimizing small favors technique work? Gx
When the excuse for not donating or doing something is taken away-->even a penny will help. This often makes the person give more (dont want to look cheap)
Gx4 the thats not all technique. Explain evidence-->cupcake sale
when a deal is made sweeter as if in a personal way, increasing the pressure for reciprocity

people bought the most cupcakes when they were made to think that they were getting a special deal than when they were just on sale or in the control grp.
Explain the mindful compliance techniqe/Pique technique
An usual request is asked thats designed to disrupt the automatic denial response.
More people gave money when panhandler asked for 17 and 37c than a quater or any change.
What is the mindless compliance technique?
designed to get people to agree without thinking about it. Didnt matter whether there was no reason or a placebic reason for small favors, more still agreed. little agreed for large favor
What factors manner in the communicator's overall persuasiveness?
Communicator expertise and trust.
Communicator attractiveness and image (beauty equals good)
Communiactor ulterior motive, less persuasive when this is against best interest
Speed of speech (faster is more persuasive)
Message repition (small subtle effects)
Gx4 the qualifications of the message repitition in overall persuasiveness.
What is the underlying mechanism involved in this?
the initial response is nuetral or positive
Too much repetition can b harmful
the fact that familiarity leads to liking.
Does subliminal advertising work?
Only in the lab under highly controlled conditions. But the effects still r weak and not very specific.
When is the one sided message more effective? the 2 sided?
when the audience is already on ur side OR when theyre less intelligent

2, when more intelligent or critical audience.
Are fear appeals effective?
relationship btw fear and persuation is inverted u shape. Yes when...
It doesnt induce too much fear
it must increase the targets perceived vulnerablity
it suggests a clear path to prevention
it suggests an easy enactment of the prevention behavior.
Explain and Gx4 the Elaboration likelihood model of persuation
Differentiates between when we respond to persuation with deliberate careful consideration (central route) and when we process the arguments superficially due to limited cognitive resources (peripheral route). Central-->quality of argument matters
Peripehral-->number of arguments, attractiveness of communicator and speaking style matter, nonverbal cues r important.
Give the results of the Elaboration likelihood Model study when particpnats read argumneets in favor of or against comprehensive exams.
When there was low involvement or relavence, expertise mattered much more, with high expertise increasing persuasiveness. BUT when argument was relevant, expertise mattereed much less.

Stregth of argumnet mattered much more with high involvement in comparison to when there was low involvement (altho there was still a difference, mattered much less)
When would a fact based argument be more persuasive? Emotion based? Give evidnece
Fact based mattered when audience had high need for cognition (educated peop)
Emo based mattered when there was low need for cognition
Gx4
Inoculation
Forewarning and reactance
counterarguments
selective avoidance
biased assimilation
I : --> challenging attitudes strenthens them

F--> if warned someone is going to try to change attitude, generate arguments ahead of time

C--> with active argument

S-->avoid situations where beliefs will b challenged

B--> process info biasly.
How do participants respond differently depending on whether or not the arguments were either compatible or imcompatible with existing attitudes
Argumnt strenght mattered more when arguente was already compatible.

Spent more time reading incompatible argumnets
What is the role of normative influence?
going along with the crowd in order to be liked and accepted, made survival more likely.
waht is inforamtional social influence?
going along wit the crowd becasue u hink they know more than u do---> autokinetic effect
Gx4 the labeling technique
You look to me like the kind of girl that enjoys porn, let me offer u...
based on commitment and consistency
Which persuation techniques are based on commitment and consistency?
Foot in door technique
Low ball technique
Bait and switch technique
labeling technique
Legitimization of paltry favors techniqeq
Which persuasive techniques are based on reciprocity?
the door in face technique
the thats not all technique
Gx4 the sleeper effect
over time people separate the message from the messenger, there was no difference btw highy credible and low credible sources in terms of opinion change over time
Snow contains pathogens, dont believe cuz it come from dad, ot forget and more likly to believe.
Give ex for Convert communicator
Jared, people perceived as credible becasue they are arguing against their own perviously held attitudes.
Gx4 stealing thunder
REVEALING POTENTIOALLY INCRIMANTING EVIDECE RESRST TO NEGATE ITS IMPACT
Gx4
Receptivity
Yeilding
Need for cognition
R whether u get, pay attention to and understand the message, People higher in Self esteem or intelligent. but less likly to yeild

y whether u accept the message

a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful thinking, analysis and mental problem solving.
At what age are individuals easiest to perusade? Hardest?
E-->adolescens arnd young adults as well as kids and old people

H--> middle aged peeps
List the types of Alpha strategies of persuasiveness
increases approach forces
Sweeten the deal--> remove barriers or add incentives
Convince audience that everyones doing it--> social proof technique
List the types of Omega strategies
Decreases avoidence forces
Redefine the relationship-->Im yr friend, not sales person
Depersonalize the interaction
Minimize the request, breaking large down to peices
Use comparison that mkes the original offer seem more attractive
push the choice into the future
Address the person directly
How does inoculation work
it allows people to build up defense against counter arguments
People will tell u this, BUT...
Worked well with teens against peer pressure to smorke.
Gx of a group using the defintion given in class
Theres at least 2 people interacting with a common goal. There's a stable relationship with interdependence with everyone perceiving theyre apart of grp

Morelight, goal-->Christ, attend every sunday. Dependent on pastor to learn abt Christ. Im def apart of this church and its apart of me
What things do grps use to operate smoothy and effieciently? Apply to morelight
Role differentiation (pastor, deacons, choir, members)

Status (Highest is pastor, he's teh most importnat aft God)

Norm (there's established rules to follow)

Cohevisveness (closeness)
Why do people join groups? Apply to your membership in morelight
To satisfy important needs-->belonging

Acheive goals not attainable along

Social comparison

Security

Identity-->important part of self
Gx4 the homefeild advantage. In which sport is this highest? Lowest?
one well known effect of others on performance.
Higest--> Soccor, basketball, hockey
Lowest-->baseball and football
Give the results of the first social psych experiment where kids were used to reel either by themselves or with competition

Define social facilitation
Studied the competition effect and co actor effect.

when prescene of others enhances individual performance, 2 individuals r better than one.
How does the Hull-Spence Drive theory explain the divergent results found in the effect of audience on performance?
Simple tasks might benefit from the presence of an audience but complex tasks are better performed alone.
On simple tasks the correct response is dominant but on complex tasks the correct response is more likly to b incorrect.
Presence of others increases arousal which increases the dominant response
Explain and give the results of the experiment that tested the hull-spence hypotheses with fake words and wavy lines
Exposed participants to some words more than others creating a dominance hierarchy. Did actually show words but wavy lines and asked participants to say whihc word they saw. People were more likly to give dominnant response alone and with audience but presence of 2 other people increased this effect. Mere presence
What is evaluation apprehentsion theory concerning audience effects on performance and how is it different from Zajonic's (Hull-Spence).
How was this tested? Results (blindfold study)?
Expl cockroach study
Instead of mere presence, audiences produce arousal becuase they are a source of evaluation (true source of arousal is worry abt hwat the audience thinks.

Blindfolded teh audience in 1/2 of the conditons (non evaluative) when the audience was evaluative there was a much bigger differenceb between alone and evaluative, greater freq presented words whith when alone.

cockroaches ran the simple maze faster with audience than when alone, but took more time win complex maze with audience than when alone.
Expl and Gx4 the distraction conflict theory
The presence of others divides attention which creates arousal. Evaluative audiences create greater attentional conflict and thus more arousal
What is the key differnect btw all hull spence, evaluation apprehension and distracton conflict theory?
All 3 agree wiht holsters drive theory but disagree with what produeces the aorusal in the fisrt place.

Hull spence-->mere presecen
Cottrel-->evaluation apprehension
Distracton conflict-->both
Gx4 social loafing. Explain the results of Reigelmanns rope pulling study designed to test this.
when perfermance declines in simple tasks due to the presence of tohers. members dont put out maximum effort.

as grp size increaed difference btw actual force and epected increased.
Explain the results of the study that tested whetehr or not coordination losses explain regelmanns initial findings on social loafing
Used hand clapping either alone or in groups. Instructed people to clap as loud as possible. As group size increased, the amount of sound pressure went down, with cheering and clapping. indicating that without coordination losses its still significant.
List and Gx4 what decreases the likelihood of social loafing
Interest in task
liking and respect for grp members (more loafing when appointed to grp)
Contributions are unique and important
Collective vs Indivdalistic cultures (more likly in individualistic)
lower Expectation abt co workers performance
Individual effort can be evaluated
What key variable distinguishes btw teh effects of social loafing and social facilitation?
Whether or not individual efffort is identifiable. No presence enhances relaxation, which impairs performance on simple tasks but enhances it on complex tasks.
Is a group better than an indiviual when completing a task?
Advantages and disadvantages of grps
Depends.
If you need
Larger pool of knowlege adn skinlls or division of labor, grp is better

Disadvantages
Waste time on social interactions
conformity reduces creativity
conflict
need for coordination
evaluation apprehension (worry abt what members think)
failure to share unique information
Gx of an additive task
Conjunctive task?
Disjunctive task
In which are grps better? Worse?
lifting heavy objects and tug of war; efforts of individuals are summed. Have to deal with coordination

the quality of the final product is determined by the weakest member. Orchestra, small choir. Indiviudals tend to do better

quality of the final product is determind by the best member. grps typically better. failure to share unque info is a big problem in this
Why are decision making grps typically inneffective? Why do people constantly believe they are better?
people r very sensitive to rejection so unlikly to provide unique solutions. Concern to fit in and go along with person in power even tho they might not offer the best solution.

Because we assume uniminity equals correctness.
According to the book, what factors make a grp a grp?

When is group identity the strongest with African Americans?
share emotionally powerful experiences
the presence of an outgrp
preserve info and pass it along.

when afri americans who lived in areas with 40-70% of population was also black. Optimal, medium level of distinctiveness.
What are some of the repercussions of deindividualization?
the loss of self awareness and of individual accountability in a grp.
What are the 2 demands of belonging to a human cultural group?
To find common values and similarity to cement allegieance to grp

To find special or unique role within the group.
Gx4 optimal distinctiveness theory
when people feel very similar to others in a group, they seek a way to be differnt, and when they feel diffferent, they try to be more similar.
Define Evaluation Apprehension
Social Facilitation Theory
EA-->concern about how others are evaluating your performance

SFT-->the preseces of others increases the dominant response tendency
How do eating patterns change with the presence of others?
Mere presence of others leads to more eating

Modeling patterns appear when people change their eating to conform to what others are doing

Self presentation motive make people eat less
Gx4 Altruistic punishment
people will sometimes sacrifcie their own gain fo rthe betterment of all by punishing people who cheat the system.
Gx4 the Common's Dilemma using the two kinds of conflict involved. How can this be solved?

Explain the tradeoff of private ownership
the tendency for shared or jointly owned resources to be squandered and not used in an optimal or advantageous fashion.-->mama's sweet potatoe pie.
Selfish impulse vs social conscience (I should eat it all vs. I should save some for others)
Now vs. Tommorrow (I want the rest of this pie now, tommorrow doesnt matter yet.)
WIth communication and positive behavior of others
Inspires preseving care BUT also greed to increase share and inequality.
What is brainstorming? How do you feel about brainstorming grps? How do psychologists feel? Whats a way to solve this
creative thinking in grps usinga procedure in which all gropup members are encuraged to generate as many ideas as possible.

Its fun, first instinct is their better than working alone

Brainstorming inidividuallly is better, reduces creative output

Many people together, working independently, crowd of random people siting in a televison studio was more likly to get the right anwer than a carefully chosen expert. BUT when grps fall into the trap of following eachother or conforming to dominant views thier power is lost.
How does transactive memory solve the problem of grpthink?
a process by which members of a small group remmeber different kinds of information. Grp emmebrs know about what they know and can shift responsiblity for remmebring to the best suited individuals. Can focus on each persons specialty
Define group think. Gx4 its signs using the Micah incident define self censorship, which of these facotrs does it belong?
the tendency of group members o think alike.
there is rpessure toward conformity
appearance of unanimous agreement
illusion of invulnerability
sense of moral superiourity
tendency to underestimate opponents
choosing not to express doubts or other informaiton that goes against a groups plans and views.
What is the difference btw the trait approach and the trait x situation approach in defining what makes a great leader
TA: some leaders a effective no matter what siutations they find themselves in

TXS: some leaders are more effective than oters, but it depends on the situation
What personality factors lead to leadership effectiveness? List from strongest to weakest.
Aggreableness, conscientiousness, oppenness, Extraversion
neurotiscim-->emotional instablity

locus of control, selfesteem, sociability, dominance, achievement, dependability
Gx of a consideration driven leader.
An initiaitng structure driven leader
C==>people first then task, good for long term

IS-->task oriented, intrested first in getting the job done
What 2 other attributs r often associated iwth leadership effectiveness? Why?
Height-->domineering, able to take contrl

attractviness--> beautiy equals good, spend more attention looking and attending to attractive peps
R there any actual differences btw men and women leadership skills? Relate this to the soical role theory
Men r more effective in roles that r defined by masculine terms, direct and control.

Women-->more effective in roles that r more culturally feminin, cooperatoin adn getting along with others.

ESRT: people r expected to behave in ways that r consistent with their gender roles
wm democratic
men autocratic
What leads to groupthink?
WHat r the symptoms?
Consequences?

Gx using a failed historical event or personal experience. u and mer?
A: Highly cohesive grp
grp isolation
directive leader
high stress
poor decision mamking procedures

S: illusion of invulnerablity
belief in more correctness of the grp
stereotyped views of outgrp
direct pressure on dissenters to conform
Iluusion of unamity
mindgaurds

C: incomplete survey of alternative
failure to examine risks
poor information search
failure to develop contingency plans
How can grp think be prevented using the nominal grps technique? Advantages?
Steps.
1. identify the probelm to b solved
2. each member formulates ideas for solutions and writes them down
3. member present the ideas for grp evaluation randomly
4. Private ranking of solutions
5. Highest rank is chosen

effecient use of time
little conformity pressure
all solutios r considered
prevents illusion of unanimity
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