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102 Cards in this Set

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What is the rule of hypodescent?

The policy that if a person has any black in them at all they are to be considered black in order to maintain distinct racial categories

Social stratification

A system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

What does it mean to consider one's standpoint?

To take into consideration the position from which we are asking questions. It means an awareness of our location at a particular intersection and culture and history which is influenced by our race ethnicity social class sex gender sexuality ability age and other factors.

Enculturation

Immersion in our own culture to the point where we assume that our way of life is natural or normal.

What does it mean for a society to be based on a civil rights system?

They have a system that is based on majority rule when there's a vote the will of the majority becomes the will of all. The system is designed to bring the greatest good for the greatest number. It also operates on the assumption that Society cannot provide for everyone.

What does it mean for society to run based on a human rights framework?

That means that it runs in a system that recognizes each person as an individual and is valuable. It is based on the belief that everyone has inalienable rights to housing food education and health care and that Society must provide these to those who are unable to provide it for themselves.

Essentialism

The tenant that human behavior is natural and predetermined by genetic biological or physiological mechanisms and that's not subject to change. Human behaviors that shows some similarity are assumed to be expressions of an underlying human drive or tendency. This view tends to lead to assumptions that are categories of difference are unchangeable.

Hegemonic

Culturally dominant belief

What alternative to essentialism based in critical thinking is offered for explaining our social order?

Social construction Theory

What are the basics of social construction Theory?

The premise that categories such as race ethnicity social class sex gender and sexuality or socially constructed. Social order is not part of the nature of things and it cannot be derived from the laws of nature. Social order exist only as a product of human activity and interaction.

What are the three stages through which reality is socially constructed?

Externalization, objectivation, and internalization.

What occurs during the externalization step of social construction?

We create cultural products through social interaction. These cultural products maybe material artifacts social institutions or beliefs or values concerning a particular group. When these products are created they become "external" to those who are produced them.

Racial formation

The process by which social economic and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories and by which they shape racial meanings.

What occurs during the objectivation stage of social construction?

The products created in the first stage of here take on a reality of your own become independent of those created them. They feel as if the products have an objective existence and they become another part of reality to be taken for granted.

What occurs during the internalization stage of social construction?

This is the stage in which people learn to be supposedly objective facts about the social cultural products that have been created. This primarily occurs through socialization of one specific rule roles and the rules of society. In this stage we make the "facts" that have been created part of the subjective Consciousness. This means that members of the same culture share an understanding of reality and rarely question the origins of their beliefs or processes by which the beliefs of rose. In many societies mass media helps us to internalize certain contracts about class in society perpetuate and a variety of Mets.

What are the three contexts in which social categories are constructed?

Institutional, interpersonal and internal

What is a social institution?

The set of rules relationships that govern the social activities in which we participate to meet our basic needs.

What are the five major social institutions covered in our text?

The family, education, the economy, the state and the media

What role does the family play in social construction Theory?

The family is responsible for reproducing and socializing and protecting the young, regulating sexual behavior, and providing emotional comfort and support for each of its members.

What role does education play in social construction Theory?

Education is responsible for teaching members of society the knowledge skills and values considered most important for the survival of the individual and Society

What role does the economy play in social construction Theory?

The economy creates controls and distributes the human and material resources of a society

What role does the State play in search of instruction Theory?

The state possesses the legal power to regulate the behavior of members of a society as well as the relationship of that Society to others

What role does the media play in social construction Theory?

The media is responsible for supplying members of society with information, for reinforcing the policies of other institutions, and for socializing members of society with regard to appropriate ways of Behaving and accepted cultural values.

What is the interpersonal context in social construction Theory?

Is it the context of her daily interactions with others. And these interactions would be lying, and guidelines for Behavior or Norms, to Define situations and create social categories.

What is the internal context in social construction Theory?

The context in which people internalize the values and beliefs established in the institutional interpersonal contexts.

What is the difference between race and ethnicity?

Grace denotes a group of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others Is possessing distinctive hereditary traits. Ethnicity denotes a group of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as sharing cultural traits such as language religion family customs and food preferences.

What determines a person's social class?

Their income, their wealth and the institutions of our society---- including State policies and the structuring of the economy.

What is the difference between income and wealth?

Income is the wages and salaries from earnings and Investments that a person gets where his wealth is a total amount of valuable Goods that they possess.

What is the Davis-Moore thesis on why we have systems of social stratification?

A thesis which states that social stratification is a universal pattern because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society. They note that Society is a complex system of Occupational positions Each of which has a particular importance and requires a certain level of skill they believed that social stratification serves the function of ensuring that all the occupations are filled by qualified professionals.

What is the Karl Marx explanation for the existence of social stratification?

Systems of social stratification involved in a quality in exploitation and are created to the capitalists can maximize their profits. The economy has primary importance as a social institution with the greatest influence on the rest of society. Other institutions also create systems of stratification but do so in general to support the operation of the economy.

What is the Marilyn Frey point of view on the reason for social stratification?

The social construction of difference is initiated with the purpose of discrimination and oppression. By oppression she means a relationship in which the dominant group benefits from the systemic abuse, exploitation and Injustice too much of that a subordinate group.

What is the Matrix of domination?

The overarching structure of domination which organizes the interlocking systems of Oppression of distinct categories of difference and systems of inequalities.

Why is it important to avoid an additive analysis of systems of Oppression?

Because he's analysis suggests that depression can be Quantified. It is troublesome to place ourselves in competition with each other arguing over who is more oppressed and which one of impression is the worst. Such debates divide us and prevent us from working for equality.

Who was Susie Phipps?

Susie's chips was a woman who is a descendant of a black slave and a white planter who sued the Louisiana Bureau of Vital Records in 1983. She wanted to have her race on her birth certificate changed from black to white. Phipps lost the case when the court upheld a state law which Quantified racial identity is requiring only 1/32 of "negro blood". In doing so the state affirmed the legality of assigning individuals to specific racial groupings.

Inculcation

the instilling of knowledge or values in someone, usually by repetition.

Racialization

The extension of racial meaning to a previously racially unclassified relationship, social practice, or group.

Ethos

the characteristic spirit of a culture, era, or community as manifested in its beliefs and aspirations.

According to institutional Theory and the sociology of wealth what is the foundation of institutional accumulation of wealth?

Home ownership and housing appreciation

What percentage of Americans own homes?

69%

When did the federal policies leading to the increase in home ownership in the United States first begin to become implemented?

The 1930s

In addition to long-term low interest housing loans in relatively small down payments on homes how else did the 1930s United States government encouraged the development of the American suburbs?

The Beneficial tax treatment of home mortgages and capital gains on home sales as well as Transportation policies that subsidized and infrastructure which prioritized private automobiles.

Equerry

officer of the British royal household who attends or assists members of the royal family.

Nepotism

the practice among those with power or influence of favoring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs.

Positivism

school of philosophy that rejects value judgements, metaphysics and theology and holds that the only path to reliable knowledge is that of scientific observation and experiment/notion that all desired information can be obtained through data that are physically measurable.

Who did Freud first study hypnosis with?

Jean-martin charcot

Who introduced Freud to the cathartic method that he popularized?

Josef Breuer

What was the cathartic method?

Letting the patience freely associate by reporting whatever cross their minds

Who co-authored studies on Hysteria with Freud?

Josef Breuer

Why did Josef Breuer eventually decide to distance himself from Freud?

He could not accept Floyd's conjectures that hysteric disorders and neuroses stemmed from infantile sexuality

From whom did Freud get his concepts of latency, the sexual significance of olfaction and bisexuality?

Wilheim Fliess

What is the name of the theory that there is both a life instinct or Eros and a death instinct or Thanatos. Also in what publication did Freud first write of this Theory and what year?

The theory was called dual Instinct Theory it was first written of in beyond the Pleasure Principle in 1920.

The principle of psychic determinism

Also known as the law of causality. This principle maintains that in the mind as in physical nature every event has antecedent causes. That is nothing happens by chance or accident. Each psychical event, each thought and each Associated feeling is influenster what determined by the ones that preceded it.

What are the mechanistic principles upon which Freud economic hypothesis or entropy model was formed?

Energy that accumulates within a system leads to a buildup of pressure which unless relieved would lead to the destruction of the system.

The law of entropy

In nature systems tend to move from a higher to lower level of organization. The death Instinct being an example of the forces that lead to the disintegration of organisms.

The constancy principle

The psychic apparatus tends to reduce any accumulated energy either through its graduated discharge or through the repression of the resulting excitation by ego defenses

What is the difference between an instinct and a drive?

The instinct is the innate or genetically inherited species-specific goal-directed set of behaviors associated with what Freud called trieb, a powerful force that persistently strives for expression which has somatic. Drives on the other hand are the psychological manifestation of trieb.

Which aspects of psychoanalytic theory were introduced in the economic hypothesis (also known as the entropy model)?

The relationship between psychology Newtonian mechanics and Lee law of entropy. The constancy principle and the Pleasure Principle. As well is the beginnings of Drive Theory.

The topographic hypothesis introduced what Freudian hypothesis?

The division of psychological processes into three separate regions: the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious.

What is the difference between the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious?

Consciousness is a form of inner perception. It is as though the Mind's Eye shines a light onto the areas of awareness. Preconsciousness includes those areas that are outside of our direct awareness but maybe brought to our awareness by during our attention to them. The unconscious is the area that is hidden from us because it is actively repressed. The ID resides in the unconscious and is the repository of the unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses.

The dynamic hypothesis

The notion of intrapsychic forces acting in opposition to one another

Dynamic

A picture of the unconscious which presses for recognition but which is prevented from reaching Consciousness by an opposing Force

Ontogeny

the origination and development of an organism

Sociological Theory

A statement that attempts to explain why groups of people choose to perform certain actions and how societies function or change in a certain way

Structural functional Theory

A theory that is based on the idea that Society is a large system that is dependent on its individual Parts working together.

Social conflict theory

A theory that implies that Society is based on small groups that have conflicts that help Society to evolve or change

Feminism sociological Theory

A theory that is based on the idea that there are inequalities based on gender in the practice of trying to fix this inequalities

Symbolic interactionalism

A theory which implies that societies really about the small groups within it and the symbols that these small groups use to communicate

What are the five basic principles of most feminist theories?

Working to increase equality, expanding human Choice, eliminating gender stratification, ending sexual violence in promoting sexual freedom

Liberal feminism

A theory which states that individuals should be free develop their own talents and pursue their own interest. This approach sees gender inequalities as rooted in the attitudes of our social and cultural institutions. Liberal feminist do not see women's equality as requiring a reorganization of society but they do seek to expand rights and opportunities for women. They focus mainly on protecting equal opportunities for women through legislation.

Socialist feminism

Based on the idea of Karl Marx, who blamed capitalism for promoting patriarchy by concentrating power in the hands of a small number of men. This Theory is based on the belief that the traditional family is based upon a capitalist system where women stay home and men work. The system in traditional family can only be replaced by a socialist Revolution that creates a government to meet the needs of the family.

Radical feminism

The belief that men that only benefit from the exploitation of women but are responsible for it as well. This theory identifies the family is the main source of exploitation and feel that patriarchy is so deeply rooted in society that even a socialist Revolution would fail to end it. Radical feminists tend to find attempts by liberal and social feminist to address issues related to gender equality inadequate. They feel that the only way to end this oppression is to create a gender free Society.

What are the three distinct functions of cultural stories according to George gerbner?

To reveal how things work, to describe what things are and to tell us what to do about them

Relative poverty

When people are poor relative to those around them

What percentage of the United States population lives in absolute poverty?

16%

Absolute poverty

When people do not have enough money to purchase what is needed for survival

The feminization of poverty

The tendency of women to increasingly make up a larger proportion of the poor. Poverty rates are highest among families headed by single mothers.

Symbolic ethnicity

An ethnicity that is individualistic and its origin in without real social cost for the person. Associated with white people.

What two choices do white people today have regarding ethnicity that people of color do not have?

The option of whether to claim any specific ancestry or to just be a white American and the choice of which of their European ancestries to she's been put in their description of your own identity

Androcentrism

The notion that males are superior to females

Cultural capital

Social assets that include beliefs values attitudes and competencies in language and culture

Hidden curriculum

The transmission of cultural values and attitudes such as Conformity and obedience to Authority through implied demands found in rules routines and regulations of schools

Media framing

The process by which information entertainment or put together by the media in order to convey a particular message to an audience

Semantic derogation

The ways in which words with originally neutral connotations decline in value over time

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Did the other people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language. Thus language shapes our reality.

The capitalist class is able to maintain its power as a result of the possession of what three key assets?

The means of production, control of the state and control of ideas and values

False consciousness

Through controlling the means of communication the capitalist class is able to stifle opposing ideas effectively. Lacking class Consciousness that is being unaware of their own class interests, members of the proletariat regard the ideas of the ruling class as natural. The prevailing socio-political system is thus seen as just, fair and working in the interest of all social classes not simply the capitalists.

What are the two stages that Marx said would follow a socialist Revolution?

Socialism which is an indeterminate transitional stage, ib which the workers control the means of production which is how relations are radically change bringing worker exploitation to an end. The state would necessarily still be present but it would now be a proletarian state which Marx called the dictatorship of the proletariat. the final stage of post capitalism is communism. The classless society is manifestly utopian characterized by the complete socialization of the productive system, the end of all economic exploitation and the appearance of individuals no longer impaled by acquisitive and individualistic values. It is at this point that the well-known dictum "from each according to his ability to each according to his needs" is fulfilled. With these conditions in place the state Withers away since there are no more class interests to protect and no need to impose social controls.

Contradictory class locations

A Neo marxian Concept used to refer to positions in class stratification systems in which people are both exploited for their labor and exploit the labor of others.

According to Weber what are the three distinct dimensions of social inequality?

Class, status and party

According to Weber how does class differ from status?

Class is a purely economic category whereas status refers to differences in prestige the derive from a particular lifestyle but not from purely economic factors

Status communities

Groups of people who have similar cultural and social interest in common consumer patterns

How did Weber Define party?

The dimension of party denotes political rank that is one standing in collectivities or organizations whose action is oriented toward the acquisition of social power, that is to say towards influencing a communal action.

According to Weber what was at the base of all forms of inequality and a primary element in all forms of human interaction

Power

Oligarchy

The rule of the many by the few

Ascription

When class or strata placement is primarily hereditary

Social stratification based on a achievement

When class or strata placement is due primarily to qualities that can be controlled by the individual

What three criteria are class divisions based on in the United States?

Occupational structure, Authority structure and property structure

What are Authority structures?

How many people a person must take orders from versus how many people a person can give orders to

How did Weber's view of status differ from that of Marx?

Weber saw status differences in Prestige as derived from a particular lifestyle not purely economic factors

How did Weber defined power?

The possibility of imposing one's will upon the behavior of other persons

According to Weber what type of power is most critical in modern society?

Organizational power. Power Systems not simply from the extent of one's income and wealth but more importantly from one's organizational position.

How did Weber's view of power differ from that of Marx?

Weber stressed the nature of bureaucracy and how this uniquely modern organizational form creates Elite power