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7 Cards in this Set

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What is Science? (Schafersman)

Science is comprised of a collection of information about nature & a way to investigate reliable knowledge about nature.

Reliable Knowledge


True Belief = True Knowledge

Reliable knowledge has been tested by a reliable method therefore has a "high probability of being true".


'one's belief is one's knowledge.'It is important to keep in mind if either belief or knowledge is true and supported.

Scientific Thinking


~Critical Thinking

Using the Scientific method to analyze or discover about nature ...


~is the use of scientific thinking in everyday life for purposes other than nature...critical thinking leads to the most reliable answers

What are the 3 things that Scientific & Critical Thinking are based on? Explain them.


Undogmatic, trial & error and "truth"

i. Empiricism


evidences that is observable through one's senses


ii. Rationalism


Use of logical reasoning which is developed through reading, writing and math


iii. Skepticism


Unwillingness to simply accept a belief or conclusion... requires constant questioning

What are the types of evidence that Schafersman discusses and which one is most effective?

Hearsay, testimonial, circumstantial, revelatory, spectral, emotional, authoritarian, and empirical (natural) evidences... Empirical is the only type that allows repetition of observations by anyone therefore it is the most effective

What are the steps to scientific method?

i.identify problem or ask a question


ii. gather information by making observations


iii. Construct a HYPOTHESIS


iv. Test the hypothesis


v. Analyze results


vi. Construct a theory

What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

Hypothesis is an educated guess at a possible solution to the problem first introduced in the scientific method while a theory is a larger set of statements explaining the the set of evidence gathered through the scietific method. It is the result of multiple hypothesis that have been tested.