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16 Cards in this Set

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Florentine Camerata
Society of scholars and musicians
-added melodies to Greek drams
-know Greek dramas did nto have singing
-emphasized clarity of text
-rhythm followed textual accents
Basso Continuo
(also called continuo)
-accompanied monody, bass instrument (cello or bassoon) + chordal instrument (lute, harpsichord, or organ)
Figured Bass
bass line with numbers indicating harmonies for chordal instrument to improvise
Recitative
-speech-like, served as dialogue
-rhythm flexible, based on text
-usually limited accompaniment
-early operas were mainly this
Arioso
-more lyrical than recitative
-melodies were more distinct and -expressive that recitative
Aria (Da capo aria)
-expansion of arioso style
-song-like, focus of operas
-can stand alone outside of the opera
-In ABA form, singers embellish the repeat of the A section
Opera Chorus
-Included to represent groups of people
-often homophonic texture so that audience can understand text
-Repetition of text by this was common
Libretto
book or text, changed from original legend to operatic version to provide happy ending
Jacopo Peri
-Eurydice (circa 1600)
-earliest surviving opera from the camerata
-almost entirely recitative
Claudio Monteverdi
-Life spanned from Renaissance into baroque (1567-1643)
-Composed madrigals and opera
-First master of opera
-Opera Orfeo (1607) introduced opera as a major art form (costumes, staging and lighting, 40 instrumentalist, chorus, dancers)
Characteristics of Baroque Music
-Large contrast between loud and soft
-Return to church music
-Protestant churches began to have orchestras, choirs, and large organs, music masters
-songs and dance not written
-text painting (Trills)
Castrato
-Male Castrated before puberty to be able to sing high female parts
-voice didn't drop, but still matures
-English did not approve of this practice
Henry Purcell
-English composer
-composed sacred and secular music
-Composed vocal and instrument works
-organist at Westminister Abbey and Chapel Royal
-Composed funeral music for Queen Mary
-Dido and Aeneas (1689) considered first English opera
Jean baptiste lully
(1632-1687)
-Louis XIV's favorite composer, only one who compose opera and dance, lover opera and dance
-Emphasis on dance in French opera
-Stage spectacle: costumes, chorus, dancers, props
-Aria more like an arioso
- recitative more lyrical
Ex. Armide (1686)
"Tragedie en musique"
plots are tragic
Trills
two notes played back and forth quickly