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50 Cards in this Set

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Gram stain process
stain sticks in thicker cell wall of gram positives, fixed with iodine, the rinse only washes out of gram negatives.
Gram Positive aerobes
- staphylococcus
- streptococcus
- enterococcus
- Bacillus antracis
- Corynebacterium diptheriae
- Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus are
gram positive aerobes
Streptococcus are
gram positive aerobes
Enterococcus are
gram positive aerobes
Staphylocci arrangement
cocci in clusters
Staphylococcus categories
Coagulase positive = S aureus
Coagulase negative (CNS)
- won't be differentiated, but will be either:
- S. epidermis
- S saprophyticus
Coagulase positive
is S. aureus
Coagulase negative
is not differentiated in most labs and listed "CNS"
but will be either S. epidermis or S saprophyticus
Staphylococcus properties/infections
Part of normal skin flora
- skin & soft tissue
- HAP after 48 hours in the hospital
- bacteremia
- endocarditis
UTI with CNS is almost always
S saprophyticus
Streptococcus morphology
cocci in pairs or chains
Necessary to treat staph
2 of 3 positive cultures, because contamination is likely due to normal existence on skin
Streptococcus classification
2 systems and a hybrid:
Lancefield - antigenics
Brown - hemolysis
Clinical - a combination
"Lancefield - Letters"
a classification system for Streptococcus based on antigenic characteristics of the outer membrane (Group A-H, K-U)
"Brown - Blood"
Classification system of Streptococcus by the type of hemolysis. - Alpha, Beta, Gamma
Alpha bugs
Brown classifications of gram+ aerobes:
- Streptococcus viridans
- S. mutans
- S. pneumoniae
Beta bugs characteristics
Brown classification of gram+ aerobes
- clear zone (remember the plate?)
- Groups A, B, C, and Enterococcus
Group A Streptococcus
S pyogenes (this is beta hemolysis)
Group B Streptococcus bugs
S Agalactiae
Gamma bugs
Brown classification that are non-hemolytic.
Include some Group D streptococcus
Streptococcus pyogenes infections
(Group A, beta hemolytic): pharyngitis, impetigo, necrotizing fascitis
Streptococcus agalactiae infections
(Group B, beta hemolytic): sepsis, meningitis
Viridans group: inhabits where? infections?
They normally inhabit GI, oral cavity, and female genital tract
- Endocarditis
Infections due to Streptococcus pneumonia
- bacteremia
- meningitis
Enterococcus history
Formerly classified as Group D streptococci
Enterococcus species and resistance
- E. faecalis (85-90%), less resistant
- E. faecium (10 - 15%), more resistant
Common Enterococcus infections
UTI, bacteremia, endocarditis, wound infection
Gram positive anaerobes
- peptococcus
- peptostreptococcus
- Clostridal group
Clostridial group
C. perfringens
C. tetani
C. difficile (colitis)
C. botulinum (botulism)
Gram negative aerobes

Escherichia coli
Serratia marcescens
Escherichia coli (3 points)
normal intestinal flora
most common cause of UTI and food poisoning
Facultative anaerobe
Facultative anaerobe
can reside in the presence of oxygen or absence.
Typically take aerobe and anaerobe culture, E. coli grows in both
Opportunistic pathogens
These include Serratia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter.
Will take advantage of antibiotics or comorbidity
Klebsiella to remember
K. pheumoniae (most common)
K. oxytoca (more resistant)
Most common Enterobacter and the infections they cause
E. aerogenes
E cloacae
See these in HAP, some CAP, bacteremia and intra-abdominal
Enterococcus is not
unique because it swarms
P vulgaris (indole +)
P. mirabilis (indole -)
Common cause of UTI
NON-Enteric Bacilli
(Some of the gram- aerobes)
Pseudomona aeruginosa
acinetobacter spp.
Helicobacter pylori (PUD)
Burkholderia cepacia
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Infections from, where found, looks like
major nosocomial agent
assoc w/extensive burns, CF, cytotoxic therapy
motile, rods
Green pigment
multiplies readily in water (humidifiers, sink traps)
A baumannii well known, but uncommon cause of healthcare related inf
gram- aerobe
Substantial resistance
Bloodstream, pneumonia, and wound infections
Iraq war veterans
Gram- aerobe
Moraxella catarrhalis (AKA Branhamella) (respiratory)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria meningitidis
Gram- aerobes coccobacillus
Bordatella pertussis (on the rise!)
haemophilus influenza
Moraxella catarrhalis
causes upper, lower respiratory infections.
Is gram- aerobe, cocci
Named coverage: Macrolides, ketolides
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
gram - aerobe cocci
neisseria meningitidis
gram - aerobe cocci
Bordetella pertussis
gram - aerobe coccobacillus
whooping cough
gram- anaerobe baccili
know Bacteroides fragilis
- part of intra-abdominal flora
- will cause intra-abdominal infection
There is also the Bacteriodes group
- B. distasonis
- B ovatus
- B. thetaiotaomicron
lack cell wall and cannot be stained
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- chlamydia pneumoniae
- Legionell pneumophilia
Normal bacteria flora - SKIN