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461 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time

absolute threshold

method for acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a form based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities

empirical method

who was the first American psychologist?

William James

who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist?

Wilhelm Wundt

the process by which someone examines their own conscious experience as objectively as possible; who established this process?

introspection; Wilhelm Wundt

the attempt to understand the structure or characteristics of the mind; who established this process?

structuralism; Wilhelm Wundt

structure in the limbic system involved in our experience of emotion and tying emotional meaning to our memories

amygdala

view that psychological disorders like depression and schizophrenia are associated with imbalances in one or more neurotransmitter systems

biological perspective

surface of the brain that is associated with our highest mental capabilities

cerebral cortex

region in the left hemisphere that is essential for language production
Broca's area

hindbrain structure that controls our balance, coordination, movement, motor skills; it is thought to be important in processing some types of memory

cerebellum

thick band of neural fibers connecting the brain's two hemispheres

corpus callosum

branch-like extension of the soma that receives incoming signals from other neurons

dendrite

allele whose phenotype will be expressed in an individual that possesses that allele

dominant allele

activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, allowing access to energy reserves and heightened sensory capacity so that we might fight off a given threat or run away to safety

fight or flight response

largest part of the brain, containing the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and the limbic system, among other structures

forebrain

part of the cerebral cortex involved in reasoning, motor control, emotion, and language; contains motor cortex

frontal lobe

nervous system cell that provides physical and metabolic support to neurons, including neuronal insulation and communication, and nutrient and waste transport

glial cell

division of the brain containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum

hindbrain

structure in the temporal lobe associated with learning and memory

hippocampus

forebrain structure that regulates sexual motivation and behavior and a number of homeostatic processes; serves as an interface between the nervous system and the endocrine system

hypothalamus

collection of structures involved in processing emotion and memory

limbic system

hindbrain structure that controls automated processes like breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate

medulla

division of the brain located between the forebrain and the hindbrain; contains the reticular formation

midbrain

strip of cortex involved in planning and coordinating movement

motor cortex

fatty substance that insulates axons

myelin sheath

chemical messenger of the nervous system

neurotransmitter

part of the cerebral cortex associated with visual processing; contains the primary visual cortex

occipital lobe

associated with routine, day-to-day operations of the body

parasympathetic nervous system

part of the cerebral cortex involved in processing various sensory and perceptual information; contains the primary somatosensory cortex

parietal lobe

hindbrain structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; involved in regulating brain activity during sleep

pons

area in the frontal lobe responsible for higher-level cognitive functioning

prefrontal cortex

drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance

psychotropic medication

asserts our genes set the boundaries within which we can operate, and our environment interacts with the genes to determine where in that range we will fall

range of reaction

the state of readiness of a neuron membrane's potential between signals

resting potential

midbrain structure important in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, arousal, alertness, and motor activity

reticular formation

relays sensory and motor information to and from the CNS

somatic nervous system

essential for processing sensory information from across the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain

somatosensory cortex

involved in stress-related activities and functions

sympathetic nervous system

small gap between two neurons where communication occurs

synapse

part of cerebral cortex associated with hearing, memory, emotion, and some aspects of language; contains primary auditory cortex

temporal lobe

sensory relay for the brain

thalamus

level of charge in the membrane that causes the neuron to become active

threshold of excitement

endocrine structure located inside the brain that releases melatonin

pineal gland

state of requiring increasing quantities of the drug to gain the desired effect

tolerance

variety of negative symptoms experienced when drug use is discontinued

withdrawal

field of psychology based on the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts

Gestalt psychology

amount of difference in stimuli required to detect a difference between the stimuli

just noticeable difference

perception of the body's movement through space

kinesthesia

way that sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced

perception

what happens when sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor

sensation

not perceiving stimuli that remain relatively constant over prolonged periods of time

sensory adaptation

message presented below the threshold of conscious awareness

subliminal message

interpretation of sensations is influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts

top-down processing

conversion from sensory stimulus energy to action potential

transduction

contributes to our ability to maintain balance and body posture

vestibular sense

where are the vestibular (balance and body posture) system's major sensory organs located?

next to the cochlea in the inner ear

who discovered classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov; therefore, it is also known as Pavlovian conditioning

conditioning in which an unconditioned stimulus (such as food) is paired with a neutral stimulus (such as a bell). The neutral stimulus eventually becomes the conditioned stimulus, which brings about the conditioned response (salivation).

classical conditioning

conditioning in which the stimulus occurs immediately before the response

classical conditioning

conditioning in which the target behavior is followed by reinforcement or punishment to either strengthen or weaken it, so that the learner is more likely to exhibit the desired behavior in the future

operant conditioning

conditioning in which the stimulus (either reinforcement or punishment) occurs soon after the response

operant conditioning

form of learning that involves connecting certain stimuli or events that occur together in the environment (classical and operant conditioning)

associative learning

period of initial learning in classical conditioning in which a human or an animal begins to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus will begin to elicit the conditioned response

acquisition

response caused by the conditioned stimulus

conditioned response

stimulus that elicits a response due to its being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

conditioned stimulus

decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus

extinction

learning that occurs, but it may not be evident until there is a reason to demonstrate it

latent learning

behavior that is followed by consequences satisfying to the organism will be repeated and behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences will be discontinued

law of effect

change in behavior or knowledge that is the result of experience

learning

taking away a pleasant stimulus to decrease or stop a behavior

negative punishment

taking away an undesirable stimulus to increase a behavior

negative reinforcement

stimulus that does not initially elicit a response

neutral stimulus

type of learning that occurs by watching others

observational learning

adding an undesirable stimulus to stop or decrease a behavior

positive punishment

adding a desirable stimulus to increase a behavior

positive reinforcement

implementation of a consequence in order to decrease a behavior

punishment

implementation of a consequence in order to increase a behavior

reinforcement

ability to respond differently to similar stimuli

stimulus discrimination

demonstrating the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus

stimulus generalization

natural (unlearned) behavior to a given stimulus

unconditioned response

stimulus that elicits a reflexive response

unconditioned stimulus

process where the observer sees the model punished, making the observer less likely to imitate the model's behavior

vicarious punishment

process where the observer sees the model rewarded, making the observer more likely to imitate the model's behavior

vicarious reinforcement

memories that are not part of our consciousness

implicit memory

memories we consciously try to remember and recall

explicit memory

type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory

episodic memory

exceptionally clear recollection of an important event

flashbulb memory

memory aids that help organize our information for encoding

mnemonic device

accessing information without cues

recall

input of words and their meaning

semantic encoding

type of declarative memory about words, concepts, language-based knowledge, and facts

semantic memory

memory error in which unused memories fade with the passage of time

transience

type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, drive your car, and swim

procedural memory

inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended

functional fixedness

observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation

Flynn effect

belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn't

hindsight bias

thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory

cognition

who developed the IQ test most widely used today?

David Wechsler

which theorist put forth the multiple intelligences theory, which poses that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence?

Howard Gardner

who helped to develop intelligence testing?

Alfred Binet

what psychologist believed intelligence consisted of one general factor, called g, which could be measured and compared among individuals?

Charles Spearman

who standardized (established an average score for each age set) the IQ test developed by Alfred Binet?

Louis Terman

who narrowed down Allport's traits to a list of 171 traits and identified 16 factors of personality?

Raymond Cattell

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Difference between hormones and neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters travel a shorter distance than hormones

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Difference between hormones and neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters travel a shorter distance than hormones

Variations in bio functions, hormonal activity, temperature, and sleep that cycle every 24-25 hours

Biological or circadian rhythms

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Difference between hormones and neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters travel a shorter distance than hormones

Variations in bio functions, hormonal activity, temperature, and sleep that cycle every 24-25 hours

Biological or circadian rhythms

An area of the hypothalamus located above the optic chiasm; exerts main control over biological rhythms

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Difference between hormones and neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters travel a shorter distance than hormones

Variations in bio functions, hormonal activity, temperature, and sleep that cycle every 24-25 hours

Biological or circadian rhythms

An area of the hypothalamus located above the optic chiasm; exerts main control over biological rhythms

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

The tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a biological system; maintaining this is the job of the hypothalamus

Homeostasis

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

While biopsychology focuses on the immediate cause of behavior, blank seeks the ultimate cause-a behavior is impacted by genetics, and behavior will show adaptation to its surroundings

Evolutionary psychology

Method of research using past records

Archival research

Applies psychology to issues in the justice system

Forensic psychology

What are the three stages of sensation?

1. Sensation


2. Perception


3. Transduction

Who discovered the just noticeable difference (JND)?

Ernst Weber

What psychologists studied attention?

Simons and Chabris

Not noticing something because of lack of attention

Inattentional blindness

to identify stimulus embedded in background noise (theory created for air traffic controllers)

Signal detection theory

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see

Visible spectrum

The optic nerves merge below the brain at the what?

Optic chiasm

When a cell is polarized it is?

At rest

Focuses on studying cognitions or thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and actions

Cognitive psychology

When a cell is depolarized it is?

Positive or active

If the sum of the graded potentials reaches a threshold there will be an action potential; if the threshold isn't reached, no action potential will occur (law)

All or none law

Schwann cell

Parasympathetic nervous system

What was William James's perspective?

Functionalism

What was Wilhelm Wundt's perspectives?

Structuralism and introspection

What was Ivan Pavlov's perspective?

Behaviorism

The father of behaviorism

John B. Watson

Behaviorist; mouse operant conditioning chamber

B. F. Skinner

Humanist; hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow

Humanist; potential for good in people

Carl Rogers

Study of development across a lifespan

Developmental psychology

The role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior

Psychoanalytic theory

Understanding the conscious experience through introspection

Structuralism

How mental activities help an organism adapt to its environment

Functionalism

Reviews proposals for research involving human participants

Institutional review board (IRB)

The degree to which a function, such as understanding speech, is controlled by one of rather than both cerebral hemispheres

Lateralization of function

Neurogenesis

Adult brains can produce new brain cells

System of ductless glands including: the pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads that secret hormones directly into bloodstream or lymph fluids

Endocrine system

Difference between hormones and neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters travel a shorter distance than hormones

Variations in bio functions, hormonal activity, temperature, and sleep that cycle every 24-25 hours

Biological or circadian rhythms

An area of the hypothalamus located above the optic chiasm; exerts main control over biological rhythms

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

Focuses on changes that occurred through reaching adulthood

Early developmental psychology

The tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a biological system; maintaining this is the job of the hypothalamus

Homeostasis

Produced by the pineal gland; controlled by circadian clock in the SCN; release of this is stimulated by darkness

Melatonin

Demonstrates that very young children do not understand that physical things continue to exist even if we can't see them

Object permanence

Focuses on patterns of thought and behaviors that make each person unique

Personality psyhology

Who theorized that personality arose as conflicts between conscious and unconscious were carried out over a lifespan?

Sigmund Freud

Psychosexual stages of development

Sigmund Freud

Focuses on how we act and relate to others; research on how we explain our own behavior, the behaviors of others, prejudice, attraction, and how we resolve conflict

Social psychology

Whose study showed just how far people will go in obeying orders from an authority figure?

Stanley Milgram

Measures eye movements

Electrooculogram (EOG)

Measures electrical activity in muscles

Electromyogram (EMG)

Measures eye movements

Electrooculogram (EOG)

Measures electrical activity in muscles

Electromyogram (EMG)

Measures eye movements

Electrooculogram (EOG)

Measures electrical activity in muscles

Electromyogram (EMG)

Stage of sleep that occurs right after dozing off; NREM; theta waves

Stage 1 sleep

Stage of sleep comprised of brief bursts of brain activity called sleep spindles & k-complex responses to stimuli; NREM

Stage 2 sleep

Stage of sleep comprised of 20%-50% of delta waves & almost no eye movement; NREM

Stage 3 sleep

Deepest level of sleep; over 50% of delta waves and almost no eye movement; NREM

Stage 4 sleep

Stage of sleep comprised of rapid eye movements and increased dreaming, and where the limbic system is very active, and the forebrain is inactive, resulting in bizarre dreams

REM sleep

in Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the disguised version of latent content

manifest content

hidden content or true meaning of dreams

latent content

sleepwalking, RBD, night terrors, etc.

parasomnia

when a person has an emotional need for a drug

psychological dependence