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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
artificial intelligence (AI)
the science of creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are done by peopl
cognition
the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing
thinking
manipulating information mentally, as when we form concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and reflect in a creative or critical manner
concepts
mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics
classical model
model stating that all instances of a concept share defining properties
prototype model
model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance"
problem solving
an attempt to find an appropriate way of attaining a goal when the goal is not readily available.
subgoaling
setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems in order to be in a better position to reach the final goal or solution
algorithms
strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem
heuristics
shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarantee, a solution to a problem
fixation
using a prior problem-solving strategy and failing to look at the problem from a fresh, new perspective.
functional fixedness
a type of fixation in which individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a things usual functions
reasoning
the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions
inductive reasoning
reasoning from the specific to the general. from the bottom up
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the specific
decision making
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
confirmation bias
the tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas
hindsight bias
the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
availability heuristic
a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events.
mindfulness
being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities
open-mindedness
being receptive to the possibility of other ways of looking at things
creativity
the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unconventional solutions to problems.
divergent thinking
thinking that produces many answers to the same question; characteristic of creativity.
convergent thinking
thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of the type of thinking required on traditional intelligence tests.
expertise
the quality of having a particular talent-that "something special"-for the things that one does in a particular domain
intelligence
problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences
reliability
the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
standardization
developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms for the test
mental age (MA)
an individual's level of mental development relative to that of other's
intelligence quotient (IQ)
an individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
normal distribution
a symmetrical, bell shaped curve with a majority of the scored falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range
culture-fair tests
intelligence tests that are intended to be culturally unbiased.
heritability
the proportion of the IQ differences in a population that is attributed to genetic differences
gifted
descriptive of individuals who have an IQ of 130 or higher and/or superior talent in a particular area.
mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability in which the individual has a low IQ, usually below 70, has difficulty adapting to everyday life, and has an onset of these characteristics in the so-called developmental period
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three main types of intelligence; analytical, creative and practical.
language
a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols
infinite generativity
the ability to produce an infinite number of sentences using a relatively limited set of rules
phonology
a language's sounds system
morphology
a language's rules for word formation
syntax
a language's rules for the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
semantics
the meaning of words and sentences in a particular language
whole-language approach
an approach to learning to read that stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning; so reading materials should be whole and meaningful.
phonics approach
an approach to learning to read the emphasizes basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
cognitive appraisials
individual's interpretation of the events in their lives as harmful, threatening, or challenging and their determination of whether they have the resources to cope effectively with the events.
coping
managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress
problem-focused coping
the cognitive strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them.
emotion-focused coping
responding to the emotional aspects of stress rather than focusing on the problem causing the stress
approach coping
directly confronting a problem with active attempts to solve it
avoidant coping
coping with a problem by trying to ignore it.