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37 Cards in this Set

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When we refer to someone's intelligence quotient as if it were a fixed and objectively real trait such as height, wecommit a reasoning error called

reifying intelligence

The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations is known as

intelligence

The sort of problem solving that demonstrates “school smarts” is what researchers have historically assessed in theirtests of

intelligence

Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that can be used to

identify clusters of closely related test items

In 8 to 10 seconds, memory whiz Kim Peek can read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he has littlecapacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim's mental capacities best illustrate

savant syndrome

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is

a diverse set of distinct abilities

Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternberg's concept of practical intelligence?

Cindy, a young mother who prefers cleaning her house to supervising her children

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas is called

creativity

Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates

divergent thinking

Intrinsic motivation is thought to be an important component of

creativity

When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facialexpressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor McGuire's perceptual skill best illustrates

emotional intelligence

The ability to delay immediate pleasures in pursuit of long-range rewards is most clearly a characteristic of

emotional intelligence

As adults age, the size of their brains ________ and their nonverbal intelligence test scores ________.

decrease;decrease

. Postmortem brain analyses reveal that highly educated people have ________ when they die than do their less educatedcounterparts.

synapses

Precocious 12- to 14-year-old college students with unusually high levels of verbal intelligence are most likely to

retrieve information from memory at an unusually rapid speed

The nineteenth-century English scientist Sir Francis Galton believed that

superior intelligence is biologically inherited.

Binet and Simon designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to

identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes

For the original version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as

mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old wassaid to have an IQ of

75

. In the early twentieth century, the U.S. government developed intelligence tests to evaluate newly arriving immigrants.Poor test scores among immigrants who were not of Anglo-Saxon heritage were attributed by some psychologists of thatday to

Innate mental inferiority

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a(n) ________ test

aptitude

If a test is standardized, this means that

a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative pretested group.

The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a

normal curve

It would be reasonable to suggest that the Flynn effect is due in part to

increasingly improved childhood health and nutrition.

If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of

reliability

A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to is said to have a high degree of

validity

Women scoring in the highest 25 percent on the Scottish national intelligence test at age 11 tended to ________ thanthose who scored in the lowest 25 percent.

live longer

Individuals with Down syndrome are

born with an extra chromosome.

Terman's observations of 1500 California children with IQ scores over 135 contradicted the popular notion thatintellectually gifted children are typically

socially maladjusted

“Gifted child” programs can lead to ______ by implicitly labeling some students as “ungifted” and isolating them froman enriched educational environment.

self-fulfilling prophecies

The heritability of intelligence refers to

the amount of group variation in intelligence that can be attributed to genetics.

Babies in an Iranian orphanage suffered delayed intellectual development due to

a deprived environment

The “Mozart effect” refers to the now-discounted finding that cognitive ability is boosted by

listening to classical music

Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a

grammar test

Everyone would agree that intelligence tests are “biased” in the sense that

test performance is influenced by cultural experiences.

Jim, age 55, plays basketball with much younger adults and is concerned that his teammates might consider his age to bea detriment to their game outcome. His concern actually undermines his athletic performance. This best illustrates theimpact of

stereotype threat

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a

chess tournament