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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How do we explain what happens in the different areas of social psychology?
• 2 way influence of self and society
• Social Cognition
• Culture shapes behavior
• Evolution shapes universal patterns of social behavior
• Brain activity affects and is affected by social behavior
4 key concerns of Social psychology
• Impact of one person on another
1. Social Influence
2. Persuasion
• Impact of a group on its members
1. Socialization and self concept
2. Conformity
• Impact of members on a group
1. Innovation
2. Leadership
• Impact of one group on another
Qualities of a good theory
• Summarizes multiple observations
• Predictive accuracy
• Generates other research
• Internal coherence
• Economy
Research methods
• Basic vs. applied
• Value-free vs. value laden
Methodology provides guidelines for:
• Collecting Evidence
• Explaining findings
• Doing research so results can be checked
Social psychology of doing research; 4 effects:
• Observer effect
• Experimenter bias
• Paradigm effect
• Subject bias
Observer effect can be addressed by:
• Replication
• Reliability testing
• Triangulation of measure
Examples of subject bias:
• Use of volunteers
• Demand characteristics
• Hawthorne effect
Dealing with deception:
• Active awareness of the problem
• Develop new experimental techniques
• Counteract negative effects of deception
Differences between cognition and social cognition
• Social cognition is mutual cognition
• People have intentions, objects do not
• People are more complex than objects
• Person perception is more likely to be affected by errors and biases
• Person perception sometimes involves a self-fulfilling element
Culture influences impression formation in what ways:
• Shared language: linguistic relativity
• Social construction of reality
Where do we get the information we use in categorization
• From the person
• From others
• Observations
What information do we get from the person non-verbally?
• Paralinguistics
• Kinetics
• Proxemics
• chronemics
5 classes of body movements
• Emblems
• Affect displays
• Illustrators
• Regulators
• Adaptors
3 Types of kenetics:
• Posture
• Gait
• Facial expressions
Two perspectives on how people make attributions
• Naïve psychologist the best most accurate reason
• Cognitive miser reasonable answer, efficiency
Two types of attributions
• Internal/dispositional
• External/situational
When to make what attribution
• Strength of situational pressure
• Person’s intentions
Weiner’s attribution model
• Internal/external locus of control
• Stable variable
• Controllable/uncontrollable
Theory of correspondent inferences
• Assumes that people prefer to make internal attributions
• Looks at how people use info about others’ behavior to infer whether those others possess specific personality traits
Two steps of the theory of correspondent inferences
• Try to deduce the person’s specific intentions based on actions
• Based on intentions, next infer what kind of personal disposition would cause the person to have those intentions and act that way.
Theory of correspondent inferences logical guideline
• Freedom of choice
• Non-common effects
• Social desirability/normativeness
• In-role/out-role
Kelly cube model of attribution
• Consensus
• Distinctiveness
• Consistency
Kelly cube model of attributions; General rules:
• Discounting principle
• Augmenting principle
The 3 tasks of Glibert’s effect of conscious attentional resourses on trait attribution
• Categorization
• Characterization
• Correction
Errors and biases in attribution
• Fundamental attribution error
• Correspondence bias
• Actor observer bias
1. Available information
2. Focus of attention
• Self centered bias
• Self serving bias
• Self handicapping
Why we use heuristics
• Lack of time
• Information overload
• Lower personal importance
• Lacking other knowledge
• Called to mind by situation
Representative heuristic problems
• Base-rate fallacy
• Misconception of chance
• Insensitivity to criteria of predictive value
Availability heuristic problems
• Ease of retrievability
• Effectiveness of the search process
• Imaginability
Mead’s Reflexive self
• Self emerges as a result of social experiences
• Social experiences seen as an exchange of symbols
• In order to understand others intentions, must be able to take their point of view
Looking glass self
• Imagining appearance to others
• Interpreting other’s reactions
• Developing self concept
Turning points in identities
• Private proclamation
• Public proclamation
• Meeting challenge
• Succeeding in an unfamiliar role
• Surpassing role models performance
• Betrayal
• Deception
Techniques of impression management
• Appearance
• Basking in reflected glory
• Cutting off reflected failure
Other self enhancement techniques
Appreciation
Flattery
Self Presentation strategies
Ingratiation
Self promotion
Exemplification
Modesty
Intimidation
Supplication
Biased Historians
Egocentricity
Benneffectance
Cognitive Conservation
Salience
Identities are organized into a role identity hierarchy based on salience their relative importance to the person.
Position of an identity depends on
resources invested
extrinsic rewards obtained
intrinsic rewards attained
amount of self esteem staked on enacting the identity well
A higher position in a hierarchy means
it is more frequently acted

more opportunities the person sees to enact that identity

more likely the person is to conform to role expectations associated with that identity
Social identity theory
self catagorization

social comparison

desire for positive self esteem (the underlying motivation)
3 levels of self categorization
Species

In-group

Personal (traits)