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65 Cards in this Set

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Name some functions of the hypothalamus?
Food and water intake, wake/sleep, growth, circadian clock, pituitary gland, temp, reproduction
What is an acronym for the nuclei of the hypothalamus?
The "AVP" has "SDTS" when it "Pees"
Name the nuclei of the hypothalamus? (8)
-Arcuate - Ventromedial - Preoptic
-Supraoptic -Dorsomedial
-Tuberomammillary
-Suprachiasmatic -Paraventricular
Is Pars Nervosa Anterior or Posterior?
Posterior
Is Pars Distalis anterior or posterior?
Anterior
Does the Posterior Pituitary have a glandular or neural relationship with the brain/hypothalmus?
-A NEURAL RELATIONSHIP!
-An outcropping of the brain
-Longer communicating nerves
Does the Anterior Pituitary have a glandular or neural relationship with the brain/hypothalmus?
-A GLANDULAR RELATIONSHIP
-Vascular connection!!
-Short Axons that are connected to the portal system!
What do the magnocellular neurons secrete?
AVP and Oxytocin (thus posterior pituitary)
What do the Parvicullular neurons secrete?
-TRH, CRH, Somatostatin, GHRH, GnRH, Dopamine (actually inhibits ant. pit.)
-These hormones enter the portal system and then act on the Ant Pit. causing it to release.
What does the anterior pituitary release?
-SMaL FLAT PeG
-TSH, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, ACTH
-Mammosomatrophs
-Somatogonadotrophs
-Lactogonadotrophs
What does the Posterior pituitary produce?
-Oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin)
What nuclei does ADH come form?
Supraoptic nuclei
What nuclei does Oxytocin come from?
Paraventricular nuclei
What does ADH do? (4 things)
-Increase H2O uptake by Kidney
-Arterial and Venous Constriction
-Stimulate ACTH release
-Stimulate Spermaticord contraction
How does it increase water uptake
-Increases water uptake by the kidneys via a V2 receptor. This increases synthesis of GS-cAMP which increases insertion of aquaporins into plasma membrane
What receptor is used for Arterial and Venous Constriction?
V1a
What receptor is used for ACTH release?
V1b
What receptor is used for stimulation of spermaticord contraction?
V1
Is ADH always being secreted? What needs to happen to cause a noticeable response?
Yes, it must pass threshold level.
What are 4 things that affect ADH release?
-Rapid Changes in Osmolality
-Drinking
-Pregnancy (changes threshold level)
-Aging
What is the main factor that causes stimulation of secretion of ADH?
-Increase in ECF OSMOLALITY
-Nausea/Vomiting
-Drugs
-Pain
What is the main factor that inhibits the secretion of AHD?
-Decrease in ECF OSMOLALITY
-Volume increase
-Ethanol
What are the teo major problems associated with ADH?
-Diabetes insipidus
-SIADH
What are the 3 potential problems with D.I.?
-Hypothalmic DI
-Nephrogenic DI
-Dipsogenic DI
Explain Hypothalmic DI? Causes?
-Deficiency in ADH
-Hereditary, head trauma, pregnancy, etc.
What is the cause for Hypothalmic DI in pregnancy?
-Enhanced mechanisms for degredation of ADH (pathological)
Explain Nephrogenic DI?
-A renal resistance to ADH ,despite normal levels of ADH
-No/insufficient receptors
-Cause: renal disease or drugs
Explain Dipsogenic DI?
-Inappropriate water drinking.
-Mental issue
What is the most common cause of Hypoosmolality?
SIADH
What are the common causes of SIADH?
-Neoplastic disease
-CNS disorder
-Pulmonary disease
-Drugs (triglycerides, nicotine)
-(AIDS, Senile Atrophy)
What is a major function of oxytocin?
-Smooth muscle contractor
-Milk Ejection
-Uterine Contractions
-Behavior (intimacy/bonding)
-Ovulation/Ejaculation/Orgasm
What is the major mediator of oxytocin?
Gq receptor
What stimulates oxytocin secretion?
-Suckling
-Estradiol
-Fergusson reflex (fetus pressure on uterus)
What are the major inhibitors of oxytocin?
-Opiods!!
-Catecholamines
What hormones does the Anterior Pituitary release?
-SMaL FLAT PeG
-TSH, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, ACTH
-Mammosomatrophs
-Somatogonadotrophs
-Lactogonadotrophs
What (in a general way) is the anterior pituitary needed for?
Propagation of species
What do Thyrotrophs produce?
TSH
What do Gonadotrophs produce?
FSH, LH
What do Lactotrophs (mammotrophs) produce?
Prolactin
What do somatotrophs produce?
Growth hormone
What do corticotrophs produce?
ACTH
Where are the main receptors for Prolactin?
Breast and Pituitary
What is the function of prolactin?
-Lactation
-REproduction
-Lymphocyte growth factor
What stimulates prolactin secretion?
-Estrogen
-Breast Manipulation
-Sleep
-TRH
-Serotonin
What inhibits prolactin?
-Dopamine
-PRL
-Somatostatin
What happens to Growth Hormone when it binds to cirrculating GH binding proteins?
It extends the half life and dampens oscillations
Where are the classic GH receptors?
Liver, Muscle, and Adipose
If you have hypersecretion of GH before the growth plates close?
Giantism
If you have hyper secretion after the growth plates close?
Acromegaly
If you have hyposecretion?
Dwarfism
What is the function of GH?
-Mobilization of stored triglycerides
-Stimulation of protein synthesis
-Antagonism of insulin action
-Stim. linear growth! (via IGF-1)
What stimulates GH?
-GHRH -Ghrelin
-Fasting -TRH
-Hypoglycemia
-Arginine
-Fasting
What inhibits GH?
-Somatostatin "stasis"
-GH
-Somatomedins
-Hyperglycemia
What do Somatostatins inhibit the release of?
-GH -PRL
-TSH
-Insulin -GLucagon
-Secretions from enteroENDOCRINE cells
What does ACTH regulate?
-Central and peripheral secretions
-Circadian Release
-Maintains adrenal gland
-Hypo/hyper secretion
What stimulates the secretion of ACTH?
-CRH
-Sleep/wake transition
-Stress
What inhibits the secretion of ACTH?
-Cortisol
-ACTH
-Somatostatin
For TSH, LH, and FSH; are the alpha or beta chains identical?
The alpha chains are identical and the beta chains are all unique!
What does Thyroid Hormone do to TSH?
It inhibits the transcription of mRNA for both alpha and beta chains, and expression of the TRH receptor
What does THR stimulate transcription of?
The mRNA for both alpha and beta chains
Is TSH release pulsatile?
Yes; long halflife and minimizes changes in circulation
What stimulates the secretion of TSH?
-TRH
-Exposure to cold
-Leptin
What inhibits the secretion of TSH?
-T4/T5
-Fasting
-Somatostatin
-Dopamine
-Cortisol
-GH!!!
Release of GnRH has selective effects on what?
FSH and LH (It effects post transcription and secretion patterns via gprotein coupled receptors)
What is the main target of Gonadotropins?
Gonads