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24 Cards in this Set

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Alliteration: repetition of a sound, particularly at the beginning of words, often used in headlines.

Effect:


- Captures attention


- Draws attention


- Adds emphasis to the writer's point.

Analogy: Compares one thing or situation to another.

Effect:


- Explains a complex point in more familiar terms


- Makes the contention look simple and obvious.

Anecdote: A brief personal account or story

Effect:


- Often entertaining or humorous


- Personal angle engages the reader


- As 'true stories,' they carry weight with readers.

Appeal to sense of Justice: Speaks to people's belief that everyone deserves fair treatment.

Effect:


- Positions the reader to agree that punishment should fit the crime


- Arouses anger at a perceived injustice.

Appeal to being modern and up-to-date: Based on people's desire to be progressive and part of the 'in crowd'.

Effect:


- Suggests that the new is always better than the old


- Appeals to the desire to thought of as 'ahead of the pack'

Appeal to family values: Based on the belief that tradition family arrangements are the best foundation for individuals and society.

Effect:


- Leads the reader to view traditional families as the most desirable arrangements


- Positions the reader to feel that other arrangements threaten the 'moral fabric' of society.

Appeal to group loyalty: Uses the desire of people to belong to a group in order to persuade them to agree with a viewpoint or take action

Effect:


- Can play on people's guilt, sense of obligation, fear and sentimentality


- Convinces people that the interests of the group require their support


- Can also appeal to the belief that 'little people' can make a difference.

Appeal to the hip-pocket nerve: Relates to people's concern about their financial wellbeing.

Effect:


- Provokes strong emotions, such as outrage at being taken advantage of


- Positions readers to feel indignant about those who want to raise prices and suspicious of their true motives.

Appeal to patriotism: Draws national pride and people's loyalty to their country.

Effect:


- Positions readers to feel that it would be disloyal to their country to disagree with the writer


- Arouses strong emotions of pride and loyalty in this example, it appeals to our alleged positive attitude to immigrants as well as egalitarianism


- Can sometimes be use to arouse anger, guilt and fear.

Appeal to self-interest: suggests that ones' own interests should be placed ahead of others.

Effect:


- Often divides people into 'them' and 'us'


- Suggests that the interests of others are in competition with and threaten the reader's.

Appeal to tradition and custom: Places a high value on the past and one's heritage, suggests that abandoning tradition is damaging society.

Effect:


- Encourages the reader to resist change and to feel that links with the past should be retained.


- Sometimes romanticises the past and reject modern ways of doing things.

Attack: Used to denigrate an opponent and, by implication, their point of view.

Effect:


- Draws attention away from reasoned argument


- Positions reader to agree that is an individual is flawed, their message must be too.

Cliché: A familiar but overused expression that carries a range of associations.

Effect:


- Conveys meaning in an economical way


- Can help the reader feel more comfortable with an idea.

Connotation: association or implied meaning of a word.

Effect:


- Arouses feelings and attitudes that position the reader to like/dislike, accept/reject a group, an idea or viewpoint



Emotive Language: Deliberately strong words used to provoke emotion in the reader.

Effect:


- Positions the reader to react emotionally rather than rationally.


- Leads the reader to share the writer's feelings on the subject.

Evidence: Facts, information or expert opinions; often from an authoritative source;may be used selectively.

Effect:


- Gives the wrier more credibility as it is apparently objective and/or supported by experts

Generalisation: The idea that if something is true for some people, it is true for all members of the group of which they belong.

Effect:


- Appeals to commonly held prejudice and attitudes.


- Positions the reader to judge others according to stereotypes.

Inclusive Language: Involves the reader directly in the issue by using such words as 'we' or 'us'

Effects:


- Makes the reader feel included and that their view counts.


- Encourages the reader to agree, since this view is apparently shared by the group as a whole.

Metaphors and Similes: Comparisons that describe one thing in terms or another.

Effect:


- Capitalises on associations with a vivid image


- Evokes emotion in the reader that matches the emotion in the writer

Overstatement, exaggeration and hyperbole: Using dramatic, forceful language to exaggerate the real situation.

Effect:


- Arouses emotion in the reader


- Can be humorous


- 'Worst-case scenario' plays on the readers fear.

Pun: A play on a word or phrase that gives it multiple meanings.

Effect:


- Often humorous


- Gains the readers attention and emphasises the writer's point

Reason and Logic: Involves a clearly stated main contention and an argument that is supported by evidence or deduction, that is, by drawing a conclusion from something generally knowing or assumed to be 'true'

Effect:


- Gives the writers viewpoint credibility for being apparently objective


- Can consider opposing view points and argue logically against them.

Repetition: Repeating words or phrases or ideas for emphasis

Effect:


- It empathises the writers viewpoint and captures attention


- Makes the point more memorably.

Rhetorical question: A question that requires no answer usually because the answer is already implied.

Effect:


- Positions the reader to agree by assuming that their answer will be the same as the writers.


- Engages the reader by addressing them directly.