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67 Cards in this Set

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Rule # 1:

The better teachers meet the students where they are academically, socially, and emotionally and begin to construct lessons from a starting point that meets the needs of the students.

Rule # 2:

It isn’t how much you teach that counts; it is how much the students remember.

Rule # 3

What the students will learn and remember will depend upon the teacher's ability to prepare appropriate lessons.

The Learning Cycle

exploration: engaging the students

concept introduction: introducing the topic

concept application: extending learning

Learning Cycle: Exploration

Students perform engagement activities that will help provide the context for learning and increase the students' interest and motivation.

ex. Hands on , student movement and interaction. Dialogue with peers. Knowledge phase: memorizing facts, and information.

Learning Cycle:

concept introduction

Introduce new learning, engagement activities

teaching stage. Guided Discovery- construct meaning based on teacher lessons. Students use knowledge to perform functions.

Learning Cycle:

Concept application

Introduce concepts in new situations. Students apply what they learn to new idea or understanding. Synthesize: Predictions, generate solutions, thoughtful questions. This stage leads to exploration in the next lesson.

Building on Prior Knowledge

The best way to develop a lesson is to offer the students an opportunity to learn new material in a sequential, developmentally appropriate pattern that is based on prior knowledge.

How to test prior knowledge

Pre-test. group discussion and writes responses on board. student interviews, classroom participation, and student interpretation of a demonstration or event to help categorize students’ prior knowledge.

Assessing Prior Knowledge Benefits

Assessing prior knowledge may also identify gaps in knowledge, misunderstandings based on misinformation, or non-cohesive thinking.

Framing instruction


Begin by summarizing previous lessons


End by Predict the content of tomorrow’s lesson.


Ask students relate the instruction to their real life.

Active Learning

computer simulations, worksheets, or other types of print and non-print resources can be used to create a more active learning environment.


bell-ringers or short shots

Meaningful task, engages learning, increases instructional time, decreases disciplinary problems. Students recall previous lesson.


Efficient way to give information. Will miss substantial part of audience if used alone.

interspersing activities, questions, and demonstrations


Asks recall and probing questions to determine the extent of students' understanding.

Lecture Tips

Keep it short (15-20 minutes)

Small lectures, divided by activities.

Colorful: stories, jokes etc

Personal: Connect to students interests


A demonstration can be almost anything, but it usually requires the teacher to perform some instructional act that is different from the normal classroom procedure.

Directed teaching demonstration

showing the students a technique, process, or procedure. (Model)

Have students complete followup activity: brief summary of the event, a prediction of the results if different variables were employed, or a discussion of the pros and cons of the event.


Worksheets should be used in support of other types of classroom learning and should not take the place of the teacher or a well constructed lesson plan.

Easy to use, group/ind work,

worksheets: knowledge level, reworking text/lecture objectives.

repetition into a lesson, provide students with additional practice, guide for review lesson.

worksheets: promote higher level thinking

constructed by the teacher, capitalize on the dynamics and direction of the class. SYNTHESIZE info, ideas, opinions, or data to construct and defend a new thought or solution.

Gallery Walk, Leaners Walk

to move about the room in an ordered fashion to observe and to think about instructional items that have been judiciously placed around the room.

Take notes, or answer questions. View eachothers answers.


personalize learning for students, differentiate instruction, provide remedial and reinforcement lessons, and present advanced concepts to faster learners. Technology can assist and increase the productivity of the teacher.


Computer assisted instruction: differentiate interaction by addressing the concerns of struggling students, providing repetition for the enrichment of all students, and pushing highly able students to new achievement levels.

The Internet

Internet-based lessons allow the students access to the accumulated knowledge of the world and allow the teacher greater range in lesson planning.

webquestLCD Projector

A webquest is a teacher-created activity that utilizes the power of the Internet to guide students through various instructional websites. Webquests have curricular objectives, measurable outcomes, and may include visits to many websites.

Graphic Organizers

show the connectedness of various topics, such as the previous lessons to today’s lesson, the components of a story, or the actions of a feedback loop. organizational tool.

Venn diagram

consists of overlapping circles that represent a relationship between two or more items, with one circle representing each item.

The quadrant technique

defining new concepts and vocabulary terms. The teacher draws four boxes with a space in the middle for the new term. The four quadrants may be modified depending upon the lesson purpose, but normally they are: text definition, student definition, illustration, and how to use it. Next, the teacher requires the students to generate ideas that shape four responses, one for each quadrant. The students place their response in the appropriate quadrant.

Concept attainmnetThe Frayer Model

Examples and Non examples. Synthesize examples to find "it"

Frayer Model: concept attainmnet

he Frayer Model uses a quadrant of connected empty boxes that are arranged in a square with an central box located at the junction of the four boxes. The upper left box contains the essential characteristics, “what it is.” The upper right box contains the non-characteristics, “what it is not.” The lower left box is used to list examples; while the right lower box contains a listing of non-examples.

Concept mapping

Concept maps are graphical representations that provide insight into relationships among different concepts. (Higher Level of thinking)

s are useful in informing the students of the past, present, and future of instruction. They guide students as they learn new material because the map establishes the linkage to other concepts and the direction of instruction. Concept maps also allow the students to recursively establish linkages that increase their overall understanding of the connectedness of the topics.


Review what you Know.

WHAT WOULD you like to know, expect to know

What did you LEARN

HOW could I learn more


Good questions not only measure student understanding, they also promote student thinking.


factual questions that have one correct answer. WHAT?

Knowledge stage

OPen-ended questions

multiple answers, factual/creative.

Which is better? Starting point for group discussion, idea generating. Do not necessarily demonstrate factual knowledge

Probing questions

thoughtful inquiry

WHY, can you elaborate, provide evidence to support your claim.

open-ended/higher thinking

synthesize data, predict an outcome, and/or respond to a hypothetical situation. Questions of this nature require the students to account for the quality of the information, consider bias and trends, and analyze the value of competing data.

Wait Time

A teacher who uses wait time effectively promotes student learning.

Instructional Responses: Clarifying questions

Collect more or better information, references, supporting detail, or data. Reword thinking

Discover connections between ideas, theories, or assumptions

Understand the intent of the language, symbols, or graphics utilized

Provide clarity regarding reasoning or logic from a point of view or focus

Paraphrasing Instructional response

restating or summarizing the response. repetition. guide, increase student engagement. Teacher paraphrases.

Non-judgmental instructional responses

promotes the flow of the lesson, continues thinking, and offers a non-committal response to the students. builds trust, develops student autonomy, and fosters risk-taking.

Advisory instructional responses

They prompt the students to remember important concepts, prior learning, and to review directions.

provide effective feedback

timely specific, uplifting, confirm or redirect response. followup questions. build repetition, restate answer with better vocabulary. teacher can summarize the discussion. Also can use to praise, encourage.


recall type questions. teacher judges response. Factual information. Evaluated in the correctness of their responses


student creates answer based on previous response. Open ended questions. Student-student until topic is covered

Round Robin Responses

All students respond until they respond a second time. Can earn way back in by correcting wrong answer. Lesson reinforcement, review activity, promote creative thinking.

Inside/outside circle

Rings facing eachother, one ring explains the answer. Accept of modify answers. Community building, however behavioral rules important

Mimic or echo

asks the students to create a response in their own words to a curricular topic or another student’s comment. In a sense, the students are trying to mimic a thought or concept that was previously presented. Engaged and Repetition

Role Playing

personalizes, practice new skills. Integrate into other task oriented skills


Brainstorming is an interactive method of getting the students to generate a lot of ideas about a particular subject. (creating solutions).


Chunking is a method that teachers use to break assignments into smaller units that are more easily accomplished by the students.

Build independence, increases time, retention

Guest Speaker

Communication relevant. Involve community. Prepare them instructionally. Prepare Worksheet

Laboratory Activities

Lesson objectives, affirm skills and content earned. Hands/minds on. STUDENT SAFTEY. Time must justify learning opportunities.

Reciprocal Teaching

Teaching reading. summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. Students become independent learners. Guided practice first. model

reciprocal teaching: summarizing

develop the ability to identify the key factors and most important information or main idea. Summarizing also promotes the communication of those findings in a clear and recognizable manner.

Reciprocal Teaching: Question generation

to ponder what they do not know about a reading passage. In this strategy, students are required to create questions about topics that hinder their understanding. Generating questions cues the students to look for answers within the reading passage.

Reciprocal Teaching: Clarifying

continue the discussion of the topic until they are able to construct meaning from the reading passage. When students are required to clarify, they become more aware of their thinking and roadblocks to their understanding.

Reciprocal Teaching: Predicting

synthesize the various events in the passage and predict the outcome or what might happen given a similar situation or in the next lesson. When creating a prediction, the students learn to link the past and present trends or events in order to imagine the future.


Survey: skimming

Question: what is expected to learn

Read: notes, visualizing, analyzing

Recite: discuss, recall concepts

Review: Use information (Application) Paraphrase, summarize, create graphics


Relate” between “Read” and “Recite”

relate: Analyze, Connect.

Word Wall

Teaching vocab. Motivation:students add words. Reference words always.

Sticky Notes

Taking notes, create bar graphs, concept map.

Reworking on the Board

Student engagement. Motivation, share to class, out of seats. metacognitive (thinking about thinking) being in control of knowledge gathering

of or pertaining to the act or process of knowing, perceiving, remembering,


Review Games

practice and reinforce what they have learned from previous lessons. Flash Cards. Behavioral boundaries,

Field Trips

Link instruction to the real world. Objectives align with curriculum. Prepared!