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75 Cards in this Set

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Considering the sequence of structures through which air enters the pulmonary system, the pharynx is to the trachea as the:
A. bronchioles are to the segmental bronchi
B. alveoli are to the alveolar ducts
C. alveolar ducts are to the respiratory bronchioles
D. respiratory bronchioles are to the alveolar ducts
E. all of the above are correct
D. respiratory bronchioles are to the alveolar ducts
The cilia of the bronchial wall:
A. ingest bacteria
B. trigger the sneeze reflex
C. trap and remove bacteria
D. propel mucus and trapped bacteria toward the oropharynx
E. both A and C are correct
D. propel mucus and trapped bacteria toward the oropharynx
NOT:
A: Alveolar macrophage ingest bacteria
B: Irritant receptors inares triggers the sneeze reflex by stimulation of receptors
C: Upper Respiratory tract mucosa, nasal hair turbinates, mucous blanket
As the terminal bronchioles are approached:
A. the epithelium becomes thicker
B. mucus-producing glands increase
C. the epithelium becomes thinner
D. cartilaginous support increase
E. the smooth muscle layer thickens
C. the epithelium becomes thinner
The left bronchus:
A. is shorter and wider than the right.
B. is symmetrical to the right
C. has a course more vertical than that on the right
D. is more angled than the right
D. is more angled than the right
The respiratory unit consists of:
A. cilia
B. bronchiolar arteries and veins
C. goblet cells and alveoli
D. respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
E. all of the above are correct
D. respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
NOT
A. cilia - propels mucous to oropharynx
B. bronchiolar arteries and veins - circulation
C. goblet cells - produces mucous (not specific to respiratory)
Alveoli are excellent gas exchange units because of:
A. their large surface area
B. a very thin epithelial layer
C. extensive vascularization
D. both B and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
A. their large surface area
B. a very thin epithelial layer
C. extensive vascularization
Surfactant:
A. facilities O2 exchange
B. produces nutrients for the alveoli
C. permits air exchange between alveolar ducts
D. facilitates alveolar expansion during inspiration
E. all of the above are correct
D. facilitates alveolar expansion during inspiration
During expiration, which relationship is true?
A. as the lung volume decreases, the number of gas molecules increase
B. as the lung pressure increases, the number of gas molecules increases
C. as the lung volume decreases, the pressure increases
D. as the partial pressure increases, less gas will dissolve in a liquid
C. as the lung volume decreases, the pressure increases
When the diaphragm and external intercostal contact:
A. the intrathoracic volume increase
B. the intrathoracic pressure increases
C. the intrathoracic volume decreases
D. none of the above is correct
A. the intrathoracic volume increase
Inspiratory reserve volume is:
A. amount of air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration
B. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
C. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
D. the extra air pushed out during a forced exhalation
B. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
Vital capacity is:
A. amount of air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration
B. taking an extra-deep breath of air just before diving
C. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
D. the extra air pushed out during a forced exhalation
C. includes sum of tidal, expiratory reserve, and inspiratory reserve volumes
Oxygen diffusion from the alveolus to the alveolar capillary occurs because:
A. the PaO2 is less in the capillary than in the alveolus
B. the PaO2 is greater in the atmosphere than in the arterial blood
C. oxygen diffuses faster than CO2
D. the PaO2 is higher in the capillary than in the alveolus
A. the PaO2 is less in the capillary than in the alveolus
A shift to the right in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve:
A. prevents oxygen release at the cellular level
B. causes oxygen to bind tighter to hemoglobin
C. improves oxygen release and increases oxygen movement into the cells
D. both A and B are correct
E. none of the above is correct
C. improves oxygen release and increases oxygen movement into the cells
In which sequence does PaO2 progressively decrease?
A. blood in aorta, atmospheric air, body tissue
B. body tissues, arterial blood, alveolar air
C. body tissues, alveolar air, arterial blood
D. atmospheric air, aortic blood, body tissues
D. atmospheric air, aortic blood, body tissues
Most O2 is carried in the blood ___; most CO2 is carried in the blood ___.
A. dissolved in plasma; associated with salt or an acid
B. bound to hemoglobin; associated with bicarbonate / carbonic acid
C. combined with albumin; associated with carbonic acid and hemoglobin
D. bound to hemoglobin; bound to albumin
B. bound to hemoglobin; associated with bicarbonate / carbonic acid
Alveoli are well-suited for diffusion of respiratory gases because:
A. they are small and thus have a small total surface area
B. vascularization is minimal, allowing greater air circulation
C. they contain four thick layers, preventing air leakage
D. they contain surfactant, which helps prevent alveolar collapse
D. they contain surfactant, which helps prevent alveolar collapse
Which ordinarily brings about the greatest increase in the rate of respiration?
A. excess carbon dioxide
B. increased O2
C. increased arterial pH
D. a sudden rise in blood pressure
A. excess carbon dioxide
Given that the oxygen content of blood equals 1.34 ml of O2 per gram of hemoglobin times the arterial oxygen saturation percentage, if hemoglobin concentration is 15 g/dl and arterial saturation is 98%, what is the arterial oxygen content?
A. 13.2 ml/dl of blood
B. 19.7 ml/dl of blood
C. 14.7 ml/dl of blood
D. none of the above is correct
B. 19.7 ml/dl of blood
The major muscle(s) of inspiration is (are) the:
A. diaphragm
B. sternocleidomastoid
C. external intercostals
D internal intercostals
E. both A and C are correct
E. both A and C are correct
A. diaphragm
C. external intercostals
Stretch receptors:
A. are sensitive to volume changes in the lung
B. are located in airway smooth muscles
C. decrease ventilatory rate when stimulated
D. prevent lung overinflation when stimulated
E. all of the above are correct
E. all of the above are correct
A. are sensitive to volume changes in the lung
B. are located in airway smooth muscles
C. decrease ventilatory rate when stimulated
D. prevent lung overinflation when stimulated
Which of the following increases the respiratory rate?
A. increased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
B. increased PaCO2, increased pH, decreased PaO2
C. decreased PaCO2, decreased pH, increased PaO2
D. decreased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
A. increased PaCO2, decreased pH, decreased PaO2
The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) of neurons:
A. sets the automatic rhythm of respiration
B. modifies the rhythm of respiration
C. is active when increased ventilation is required
D. none of the above is correct
A. sets the automatic rhythm of respiration
PaCO2 of 40 mmHg is
A. arterial blood
B. mixed venous blood
A. arterial blood
Oxygen saturation of 70% is
A. arterial blood
B. mixed venous blood
B. mixed venous blood
Oxygen content of blood of 19 to 20 ml/dl is
A. arterial blood
B. mixed venous blood
A. arterial blood
Kussmaul respiration
A. inadequate alveolar ventilation
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
E. fractured ribs or sternum
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
Hemoptysis
A. inadequate alveolar ventilation
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
E. fractured ribs or sternum
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
Brochiectasis
A. inadequate alveolar ventilation
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
E. fractured ribs or sternum
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
Pneumoconiosis
A. inadequate alveolar ventilation
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
E. fractured ribs or sternum
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
Flail chest
A. inadequate alveolar ventilation
B. coughing blood or bloody secretions
C. abnormal dilation of bronchi
D. fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs
E. fractured ribs or sternum
F. increased ventilatory rate, effortless tidal volume, and no expiratory pause
E. fractured ribs or sternum
Cyanosis
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
B. alveolar collapse
C. pleural space air
D. pleural space pus
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
B. alveolar collapse
C. pleural space air
D. pleural space pus
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
Atelectasis
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
B. alveolar collapse
C. pleural space air
D. pleural space pus
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
B. alveolar collapse
Pneumothorax
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
B. alveolar collapse
C. pleural space air
D. pleural space pus
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
C. pleural space air
Abscess
A. decrease arterial oxygenation
B. alveolar collapse
C. pleural space air
D. pleural space pus
E. apnea, increased ventilations, then apnea again
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
F. circumscribed area of suppuration
High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:
A. right-to-left shunts
B. hypoventilation
C. decreased oxygen inspiration
D. diffusion abnormalities
E. all of the above are correct
C. decreased oxygen inspiration
In ARDS, increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability is caused by:
A. platelet-activating factor (PAF)
B. oxygen-free radicals
C. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
D. both A and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
A. platelet-activating factor (PAF)
B. oxygen-free radicals
C. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
Type II pneumocyte damage causes:
A. increased alveolocapillary permeability
B. chemotaxis for neutrophils
C. exudation of fluid from capillaries into interstitium
D. decreased surfactant production
E. all of the above are correct
D. decreased surfactant production
Pulmonary edema may be caused by abnormal:
A. capillary hydrostatic pressure
B. capillary oncotic pressure
C. capillary permeability
D. both A and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
A. capillary hydrostatic pressure
B. capillary oncotic pressure
C. capillary permeability
In bronchial asthma:
A. bronchial muscles contract
B. bronchial muscles relax
C. mucous secretions decrease
D. imbalances within the CNS develop
A. bronchial muscles contract
Asthma is precipitated by which of the following inflammatory mediators? (more than one answer may be correct)
A. histamine
B. prostaglandins
C. leukotrienes
D. neutrophilic infiltration
A. histamine
B. prostaglandins
C. leukotrienes
D. neutrophilic infiltration
In emphysema:
A. there is increase area for gaseous exchange
B. there are prolonged inspirations
C. the bronchioles are primarily involved
D. there is increased diaphragm movement
E. none of the above is correct
E. NONE of the above is correct
Chronic bronchitis (more than one answer may be correct)
A. is caused by lack of surfactant
B. is caused by air pollutants
C. exhibits a productive cough
D. causes collapsed alveoli
B. is caused by air pollutants
C. exhibits a productive cough
Which is INCONSISTENT with pneumonia?
A. chest pain, cough, and rales
B. involves only interstitial lung tissue
C. may be caused by mycoplasmas
D. can be lobar pneumonia or bronchopneumonia
B. involves only interstitial lung tissue
Tuberculosis (more than one answer may be correct)
A. is caused by an aerobic bacillus
B. may affect other organs
C. involves a type III hypersensitivity
D. antibodies may be detected by a skin test
A. is caused by an aerobic bacillus
B. may affect other organs
D. antibodies may be detected by a skin test
Pulmonary emboli usually: (more than one answer may be correct)
A. obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma
B. originate from thrombi in the legs
C. occlude pulmonary vein branches
D. occlude pulmonary artery branches
A. obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma
B. originate from thrombi in the legs
D. occlude pulmonary artery branches
Pulmonary hypertension:
A. occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated
B. involves deep vein thrombosis
C. shows right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram.
D. both A and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
D. both A and C are correct
A. occurs when left arterial pressure is elevated
C. shows right ventricular hypertrophy on an electrocardiogram.
Cor pulmonale:
A. occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension
B. is right heart failure
C. is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds
D. both B and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
E. A, B, and C are correct
A. occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension
B. is right heart failure
C. is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds
A lung cancer characterized by many anaplastic figures and the production of hormones is most likely:
A. squamous cell carcinoma
B. small cell carcinoma
C. large cell carcinoma
D. adenocarcinoma
E. bronchial adenoma
B. small cell carcinoma
The metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma is:
A. late
B. very early and widespread
C. early
D. early and widespread
E. never seen
A. late
___ Inflammation above the epiglottis causes a barking cough
true or false
false
___ Laryngotracheobranchitis is more severe than epiglottis
true or false
false
___ Surfactant production accelerates airway luminal growth
true or false
false
___ Failure to produce surfactant at birth results in sever atelectasis and RDS.
true or false
true
___ Cystic fibrosis is a disease process primarily caused by hyperresponsive airways that are sensitive to certain environmental triggers.
true or false
false
___ Bronchiolitis and asthma produces similar symptoms.
true or false
true
Epiglottis is characterized by:
A. gradual onset
B. severe stridor
C. drooling
D. all of the above are correct
E. both B and C are correct
E. both B and C are correct
B. severe stridor
C. drooling
Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) is characterized by:
A. mild to moderate stridor, often worse at night
B. antecedent "cold" symptoms
C. swelling of subglottic tissues
D. a barking cough
E. all of the above are correct
E. all of the above are correct
A. mild to moderate stridor, often worse at night
B. antecedent "cold" symptoms
C. swelling of subglottic tissues
D. a barking cough
The most common cause of bronchiolitis is:
A. H. influenzae
B. exposure to allergens
C. parainfluenza virus
D. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
D. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Streptococcal pneumonia in children is acute and tends to occur in:
A. the winter
B. the early spring
C. the fall months
D. the summer
E. any season
E. any season
Staphylococcal pneumonia in children has its highest incidence at:
A. 2 to 3 years
B. 1 to 4 years
C. 1 week to 2 years
D. 1 to 12 years
C. 1 week to 2 years
Bronchiolitis:
A. causes destruction of ciliated cells
B. can cause atelectasis
C. can cause hyperinflation
D. all of the above are correct
D. all of the above are correct
All of the following statements about foreign body aspiration are true except:
A. it is a relatively common occurrence in childhood
B. the offending objects include food and toys
C. it can cause pneumonia and atelectasis
D. it may cause pneumonias and lung abscess
E. both B and C are correct
C. it can cause pneumonia and atelectasis
Which statement is true concerning cystic fibrosis?
A. it is a multisystem
B. defect results in overproduction of viscous mucus
C. it is difficult to detect carriers through genetic testing
D. infections complications are common
E. A, B, and D are correct
E. A, B, and D are correct
A. it is a multisystem
B. defect results in overproduction of viscous mucus
D. infections complications are common
Which statement is true concerning asthma?
A. its triggers include allergy, viruses, and exercise.
B. Once asymptomatic for a number of years, affected individuals may be assumed to be cured.
C. it is characterized by hyperresponsive airways
D. both A and C are correct
E. A, B and C are correct
D. both A and C are correct
A. its triggers include allergy, viruses, and exercise.
C. it is characterized by hyperresponsive airways
Which statement is true concerning RDS of the newborn? There is:
A. a right-to-left shunt
B. absence of surfactant
C. hypoxic vasoconstriction
D. all of the above are correct
D. all of the above are correct
A. a right-to-left shunt
B. absence of surfactant
C. hypoxic vasoconstriction
Expiratory wheezing
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
A. asthma
Autosomal recessive disease
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
B. cystic fibrosis
A right-to-left shunt
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
F. respiratory distress syndrome
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
G. obstructive sleep apnea
Acute, life-threatening infection
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
E. epiglottis
Parainfluenza virus
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
Prone position increases incidence
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
D. SIDS
Spasm of vocal cords occurs as inflammation intensifies
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
Inflammatory basis with hyperresponsive airways
A. asthma
B. cystic fibrosis
C. laryngotracheobronchitis
D. SIDS
E. epiglottis
F. respiratory distress syndrome
G. obstructive sleep apnea
A. asthma