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30 Cards in this Set

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What is ruminal tympany?

Failure to expel fermentation gas via eructation due to an obstruction or excessive gas produced more so than being absorbed.

What is primary bloat?

Frothy bloat associated with ingestion of high carb diet. More gas produced than is absorbed.

What is secondary bloat?

Mechanical or functional obstruction of the oesophagus. Accumulation of gas.

What are the signs of ruminal tympany?

Rumen distended with gas or fermented feed.


Blood is dark and hypoxic.


Clots.


Haemochezia

What are the main causes of ruminal acidosis?

High carbs a grain overload.

The sequence of events that lead to a ruminal acidosis?

Lots of carbs-> increase in number of gram positive cocci (lactobacillus)-> increased VFA and lactic acid production -> Fall in ph less than 5


RUminitis may develop

Gross findings of ruminal acidosis ?

Porridge like ruminal contents

Ruminitis caused by ruminal acidosis features?

Thromboemboli may travel to liver and abscess.


Histologically lots of neutrophils in epithelium of ruminal papillae, erosion and ulcers. Colonization by fungi (Mucor)

Parthenogenesis of traumatic reticulitis?

1)Ingestion of a piece of wire


2) falls to the floor of recticulum


3) contraction forces through wall


4) continue into pericardium through diapraghm etc.

Name another cause of ruminitis ? Pathogenesis?

Mycotic 
or Bacterial like Fusobacterium Necrophorum.
Opportunist pathogen can lead to thromoembolic spread and coagulative necrosis and abscess in the liver

Mycotic


or Bacterial like Fusobacterium Necrophorum.


Opportunist pathogen can lead to thromoembolic spread and coagulative necrosis and abscess in the liver

Typers of neoplasm in the ruminant forestomachs?

Papilloma virus type 4


SCC developed from papillomas in associating with braken toxin

Obstructional disorders of the glandular stomach and abomasum?

Foreign body or functional object


Pyloric stenosis.

What is the name given to an obstruction caused by bones, stones, hair and wool?

Trichobezoars

Trichobezoars

What is the name of an obstruction caused by plant material and what animals are susceptible?

Phytobezoars - plant material.

Name the different types of displacements of the stomach and abomasum?

Herniation of stomach


LDA


RDA


Gastric dilatation and volvulus

When would herniation through the diaphragm usually occur?

Congenital or a dog or cat in a road traffic accident

What are reasons for displacement of the abomasum?

Diet, transition after birth to lactation, changes in calcium levels in the blood.

What is the most common abomasal displacement?Most severe?

Left




Right

How does gastric dilatation and volvulus occur and which animals susceptible?



Exercise post feeding stomach is distended with gas and increases the inter thoracic pressure and blood vessels the spleen and stomach rotate on their long axis occluding the oesophagus and venous return! CONGESTION, OEDEMA, NECROSIS OF MUCOSA, CAN RUPTURE.




LARGE DEEP CHESTED DOGS THINK GREAT DANE!

What suggests that gastric rupture is not post mortem change due to putrefying bacteria ?

Peritonitis and hemorrhage

What leads to haemorrhagic gastritis/ abomasitis?

Clostridium septicum acute necrotising toxins leading to necrosis with fibrin, oedema, haemorrhage and emphysema.

What has occurred here?

What has occurred here?

Hypertrophy of the rugae due to chronic retention of gastric fluid and bile reflux.

What is the pathogenesis of ostertagiasis?

Encysted larvae form nodules, glandular hyperplasia and loss of function.


Type I


Type II

When does ostertagiasis type II occur?

When the larvae overwinter and encyst then emerge in mass in the spring.

How does ulceration occur in the stomach ?

Hypersecretion of acid and impaired mucosal barrier due to stress, gluccocorticoids, prostaglandin inhibitors, epithelial damage

The sequence of events leading to gastric ulceration?

Mucosal barrier disrupted--> pepsin and acid lead to necrosis-> ulcers, erosion into blood vessels--> haemmorhage.

Causes of ulcers in the dogs?

NSAIDS


Mast cell tumor (Histamine causes HCL hypersecretion)


Chronic renal disease


Pancreatic gastrin secreting tumour gamma cells.


Bile reflux

When do pigs mainly get ulceration?

Finely ground feed

Were do we usually see ulcers in horses?

Margo plicatus

Common neoplasms in abomasum/stomach?

Adenocarcinomas of glands.


SCC


Leimyoma leiomyosarcoma


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors


Lymphoma