Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/78

Click to flip

78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

hyperfunction

(too many hormones released): suppressor test

hypofunction

( not enough hormones released): stimulation test

anterior pituitary

releases ACTH to adrenal cortex ; designated - releasing of hormones here

growth hormone

liver to release other hormones to develop bone and muscle growth

hypothalamus

Secretes releasing hormones to the pituitary, tell pituitary to release their hormones, stored hormones into systemic circulation, either go to target cell or do job it is supposed to do; gets messages from the nervous system

hormone

Attach to receptors that are on the surface of the cell or on the membrane or inside the cellWill only respond if it has a receptor for a specific hormone

autocrine

hormone released from a cell and acts on itself (insulin)

paracrine

released from a particular cell and acts on a nearby cell

hepatic cells

synthesize bile and release into canaliculus

Hep A

Usually benign and self limiting (least virulent)Contracted primarily via fecal oral route


Does not cause chronic hepatitis or induce a carrier state

Hep B

Can be acute, chronic, carrier, lead to cirrhosis


Participates in the development of HDV


Longer incubation than Hep A and more serious


Transmitted via infected blood & body secretions

Hep C

Multiple genotypes & subtypes Common cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, end stage liver disease, liver cancer


Transmitted via infected blood & body secretions


Risks: recreational injection, high risk sexual behavior, needle sticks in the healthcare setting

HAV

Which is the least virulent strain of hepatitis?

acute liver failure

Systemic inflammation, jaundice, high blood ammonia, cerebral edema, drowsiness, slurred speech

alcoholic hep

Liver inflammation and necrosis of liver cellsIntermediate stage between fatty liver and cirrhosis


Rapid onset of jaundice


Liver tenderness, pain, anorexia, ascitesAlways serious, sometimes fatal


Progression to cirrhosis in 1-2 years

alcoholic cirrhosis

Small nodules on the liver


Fibrous scar tissue blocks sinusoids and bile canaliculi


End-stage alcoholic liver disease

non alcoholic liver disease

fatty liver disease with potential for progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease arising from a cause other than alcohol

cirrhosis

Normal liver tissue replaced by fibrous (scar) tissue (irreversible)

portal hypertension

Fibrous bands increase resistance to blood flow in portal venous system (increases pressure)

cholestasis

Impaired bile flow


Obstructive or metabolic


Accumulation of bile in liver


Accumulation of bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acids in blood

acute pancreatitis

Acute: reversible inflammation of the pancreas (often from early activation of pancreatic enzymes)

chronic pancreatitis

progressive & permanent destruction of the exocrine pancreas, fibrosis, and later the endocrine pancreas (irreversible)

tertiary disorder

abnormality in stimulation from hypothalamus

secondary disorder

abnormality in stimulation from pituitary

primary disorder

abnormality in target gland

Acromegaly

hypersecretion of GH in adulthood

gigantism

hypersecretion of GH before puberty

acute renal failure

Rapid decline in kidney function (develops over hours/days

intrinsic

damage to structures within the kidney

prerenal

marked decrease in renal blood flow

postrenal

obstruction of urine outflow

postrenal

Which type of ARF would most likely accompany benign prostatic hypertrophy?

CKD

Irreversible deterioration of renal function: permanent loss of nephrons decline in function kidney failure

GFR

best measure of overall function


Normal = 120-130 mL/minute


GFR varies with age, sex, ethnicity, body size


Measured via serum creatinine

Urination

Detrusor muscle contracts


Internal sphincter relaxes


External sphincter relaxes

flaccid bladder

absent contractions, failure to empty urine

dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

scleroderma

autoimmune disease – causes fibrous replacement of tissues in the muscularis layer of the GI tract

achalasia

Impaired muscular contraction in lower esophagus


Lower esophageal sphincter does not relax

esophageal diverticula

Out pouching of esophageal wall

Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Longitudinal tears in mucosal layer

hiatal hernia

Protrusion of stomach through esophageal hiatus

Reflux

Esophageal damage caused by reflux of stomach acid

acute gastritis

Inflammation of stomach lining


Allows digestive acid to irritate stomach

chronic gastritis

Leads to atrophy of gastric epithelium


Occurs slowly over time

H Pylori

Bacteria produce enzymes/toxins that inflame & destroy mucosa of stomach

Peptic Ulcer Disease

Ulcers in lining of stomach/duodenum

irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic and recurrent intestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalitiesIncreased motility & abnormal intestinal contractions

inflammatory bowel disease

Crohn disease


Autoimmune disorder


Immune response to normal (microbial) flora


Involves distal small intestine and proximal colon (can affect any area of the GI tract)


Sharp demarcated granulomatous lesions

ulcerative colitis

Autoimmune disorder


Chronic inflammation


Involves colon & rectum


Pinpoint mucosal hemorrhages, ulcerations


Pain


Persistent diarrhea with blood & mucus

infectious entercolitis

Microbes infect & inflame small intestine or colon

diverticulosis

Pouches in colon wall (diverticula)

diverticulitis

Infection & inflammation of diverticula

appendicitis

Inflamed, swollen, & gangrenous appendix

peritonitis

Infection or irritation of peritoneum

Celiac's

Triggered by gluten-containing grains


Inappropriate T-cell-mediated immune response


Type IV hypersensitivity

glucagon

hormone released from pancreas when blood sugar is low

gluconeogenesis

glucose synthesis in liver from a non carbohydrate

alpha cells

Produce glucagon In response to low blood glucose

beta cells

Produce insulin


Release insulin in response to spike in blood glucose

delta cells

Produce somatostatin

PP cells

Produce Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)


Regulates pancreatic secretion


Suppresses glucagon and insulin secretion


**Decreased by the presence of somatostatin

epinephrine

Inhibits release of insulin


Increases glycogenolysis

cortisol

Increases gluconeogenesis

insulin

Which pancreatic hormone decreases blood glucose levels?

Type 1 DM

beta cell destruction


Pancreas does not produce insulin


Predominantly an autoimmune disorder

Type 2 DM

beta cell dysfunction with insulin resistance


Pancreas does not produce enough insulin


Cells do not use insulin properly

gestational DM

Hyperglycemia in pregnant woman (without prior DM diagnosis)

Beta cells

Release: C-Peptide- helps prevent nerve and vascular damage from hyperglycemia

polyuria

Excessive urination

polydipsia

increased thirst; because of the excessive urination

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Not eating before test

Casual Test

come on whenever to test blood sugar

Oral Glucose Tolerance test

75 mg of oral glucose solution, wait 2 hours x3 and check blood sugar

capillary glucose monitoring

cap test with needle

A1C test

blood test and looks at red blood cells and gives average of blood sugar for the past 3 months (want between 4-9 and below 7)

DKA

Diabetic, high level of ketones(fruity breath), acidosis- most common in type 1 diabetics


Nausea, vomiting, frequent urination, thirst, dehydration, acidosis


Ketones - byproduct of the breakdowns of fat*** Turn blood acidotic

test DKA by

Do an ABG to diagnose or test blood glucose or serum ketones