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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What two conditions refer to a malformation of the penis and urethra and may cause a constricted opening?
hypospadias and epispadias
Undescended testes are also known as _________?
cryptorchidism
True or false: cryptorchidism can increase the risk of testicular cancer.
true
At what age do most cases of testicular torsion
adolescence
Twisting of the spermatic cord can lead to _________.
testicular ischemia
True or false: Testicular torsion does not need to be treated immediately.
false
What is the most common cause of epididymitis in young adult men? What about in middle-aged to older men?
STD organisms, typical agents of urinary tract infections
What two diseases are associated with infectious granulomatous orchitis?
tuberculosis, leprosy
Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis can mimic what other testicular problem.
testicular cancer
What causes acute prostatitis?
infection by typical agents of urinary tract infections
What procedures may increase a man's risk of getting acute prostatitis?
catheterization, cystoscopy
What are symptoms of chronic prostatitis?
low back pain, perineal/suprapubic discomfort, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infections
Why is chronic prostatitis difficult to treat?
most antibiotics penetrate the prostate poorly
What three things can cause granulomatous prostatitis?
tuberulosis, fungi, and treatment of bladder cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin
What does BPH stand for? What can contribute to its development?
benign prostatic hyperplasia, androgens
What are some symptoms of BPH?
urinary frequency, nocturia, difficulty initiating and stopping urine flow, dysuria, and cystitis/pyelonephritis
What are the two treatments for BPH?
medication and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
True or false: Since penile cancer is a carinoma in situ, it does not metastasize.
true
What three things are associated with penile cancer?
HPV, smoking, and poor hygiene
During what age range is the peak incidence of germ cell testicular cancer?
15-34
Which type of germ cell testicular cancer has a better prognosis: seminoma or non-seminoma?
seminoma (very sensitive to radiation)
What do germ cell tumors do that can be useful in diagnosis?
secrete hormones or enzymes
What is the most common cancer in the testes of men over 60?
testicular lymphoma (technically a systemic malignancy that sometimes involves the testis)
True or false: Prostate carcinoma is quite rare.
false
What four things are part of the clinical presentation of testicular cancer?
nodule on digital rectal exam, elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen, occasionally urinary symptoms, and symptoms of metastasis
Besides prostate cancer, what other two conditions can cause elevated levels of PSA?
BPH or prostatitis
What things influence the probability of prostate cancer?
age, race, diet, androgens, and genetics
What two things help determine the prognosis of prostate cancer?
Stage and Grade
What are common metastatic sites for prostate cancer?
bones, lungs, liver and brain
Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are considered ________ treatment when it comes to prostate cancer.
palliative