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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mechanisms of pleural effusion
inc hydrostatic p
dec osmotic p
inc permeability
dec pressure in pleural space
impaired lymphatic drainage
What can be seen on a CXR
blunting of the costophrenic angle
density with fluid level
Hydrothorax
trasudative pleural effusion
Hemothorax
accumulation of blood in pleural space
Chylothorax
milky white lymphatic fluid in pleural space
What are the criteria that must be met for exudates?
inc protien, LDH in pleural fluid

*transudates have none of these
which is worse transudate or exudate
exudate
What is the most common cause of transudate?
CHF
What causes exudate?
many things
Parapneumonic effusion
associated w underlying pneumonia, lung abscess or bronchiectasis
What is the most common cause of exudative effusions?
parapneumonic effusions
What type of complication can occure with parapneumonic effusion?
turn into an empyema (pus)
effusion becomes loculated
Pneumothorax
air or gas trapped in the pleural space
What are some mechanism of pneumothorax
perforation of visceral pleura & entry of air from lung
penetration of chest wall, diaphragm, esophagus etc
gas forming organism
Spontaneous simple pneumothorax?
healty pt
tall person,smoker, rupture of small apical bleb???
Secondary spontaneoud pneumothroax
due to an underlying disease
traumatic open pneumothorax
injury allows outside air to continously enter the pleural cavity
traumatic closed pneumothorax
injury becomes airtight but pleural cavity continues to recieve air from leakage of punctued lung
Iatrogenic pneumothorax
invasive procedures
pulmonary barotrauma pneumothorax
from mechanical ventillation at high pressures
Catamenial pneumothorax
endometriosus/menses related
Neonatal pneumothorax
complication durning delivery
induced pneumothorax
we make it for a reason
clinical mainfestation of pneumothorax
enlarged hemithorax, less movement on respiration
absent tatcile fremitus, hyper-resonance, dec breath sounds
CXR of pnuemothorax
tracheal & medistinal shift to contralateral side
Tension pneumothorax
pleural p > atm
1 way valve mech
complete lung collapse - shift to opposite side
dec veous return to the heart
Mesothelioma
associated w asbestos
primary pleural tumor
no assoication w smoking
clinical presentation of meosthelioma
chest pain, dyspnea, weakness, weight loss
unilateral
pleural thickening
highly malignant, rare mets
no effective tx