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66 Cards in this Set

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Lesion Studies

- Study on patients or animals that have suffered damage or lesions to the brain.

X-Rays

- Displays the brain in a crude 2-dimensional structure using electromagnetic radiation.


- Only reveals major structural damages.


- Wavelength used is usually 0.01 to 10 nanometers.

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)

- Uses a series of computerized x-rays to produce tomographic layers to reveal a 3-dimensional image of the brain as well as functional information.


Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

- Displays 3-dimensional image of the brain as well as its functions by detecting gamma rays indirectly through a tracer.


- An invasive method of brain imaging as it requires the injection of radioactive sugars into a patient.


- It is able to detect which part of the brain are active during certain activities but it is largely a misconception that the detected concentration of glucose during a PET scan correlates to brain function.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

- Medical imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiowaves to provide structural and functional information.


- Less invasive than PET as it requires less exposure to radiation for a patient.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

- Records electrical activity along the scalp over a period of time (usually 20-40 minutes).


- Provides electrical activity and info of he brain and is non-invasive.

Anatomy Of A Nerve Cell

1. Dendrites


2. Cell Body


3. Nucleus


4. Axon


5. Myelin Sheath


6. Nodes of Ranvier


7. Schwaan's Cells


8. Axon Terminals

Cell Body

- Part of the nerve cell containing the nucleus and the dendrites.

Axon Terminal

- Long, slender projections from the neuron cell.


- Hosts axonal transmission.


- Secretes neurotransmitters.


- Also known as the axonal terminal or buotons.

Dendrite

- Short, branched extensions of the cell body that receives information from other neurons.

Myelin Sheath

- Fatty tissues covering the Schwaan's Cells connected by Nodes of Ranvier to either end.


- Speeds conduction of information and acts to insulate.


- Involved in degenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis.

Nodes of Ranvier

- Gaps approximately 1 micrometer in between the myelin sheath.


- Increases the speed of transmission of information.

Synapse

- The fluid filled gap between two or more neurons that permit the neurons to pass chemical or electrical information between each other.

Axon

- The nerve fiber and main body of the cell.


- Connects the cell body to the axon terminal.


- Overall function is to transmit information from the cell body away to the axon terminal to other nerve cells.

Different Types of Nerve Cells

1. Receptor Neurons


2. Afferent Neurons


3. Efferent Neurons


4. Interneurons


Receptor Neurons

- Responds to external stimulation and converts it to electrical stimulation.

Afferent Neurons

- Sends messages from the receptor neurons andsen sory organs to the Central Nervous System.

Efferent Neurons

- Sends messages from the Central Nervous System to the effectors such as the muscles or glands.

Interneurons

- Neurons that connect the Afferent and the Efferent Neurons.


- They are neither motor nor sensory.

Microelectrodes

- An electrode of very small size used to record electrical impulses of neural signals and the electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue.

Resting Potential

- A neuron at rest with a negatively charged inside.


- In humans it is -70 mv in relativity to the outside.


- A neuron at resting potential is not firing.

Threshold (Na)

- The value at which action potential will occur.


- In humans, it is -55 mv.

Action Potential

- An event in a neuron where the threshold is met and an electric impulse is sent through the axon to the synapse.


- A neuron "fires" at action potential ad lasts about 1 millisecond.

All Or None Principle

- This principle states that once a neuron reaches its action potential, an electrical impulse will be fired but the intensity of the electrical impulse will not affect the size or intensity of output.


- Like a gun; one trigger pull = one shot.


- Stimulus intensity is determined by the number of impulses firing or the intervals of which the impulses are firing.

Presynaptic Membrane

- The membrane that lines the axon terminal containing vesicles with neurotransmitters.

Postsynaptic Membrane

- The membrane that lines the dendrite. It is essentially a receptor site for neurotransmitters formed from the axon terminal that creates the synapse.

Lock And Key Theory

- The theory stating that enzymes catalyze chemical reaction with the binding of a substrate to the active site where the active site has a unique geometrically shaped base to selectively receive selected enzymes.


- The neurotransmitters will only affect the postsynaptic membrane if the shape fits into certain receptor molecules just as a lock and key.


Neurotransmitters

- Chemicals that influence other neurons.


1. Dopamine


2. Serotonin


3. Acetylcholine


4. Norepinephrine


5. Endorphin

Dopamine

- Responsible for: voluntary movement, cognition, and mood.


- Too little = Parkinson's Disease; Too much = Schizophrenia.

Serotonin

- Responsible for: sleep, appetite, and mood.


- Too little = Depression; Too much = Sleepiness and Schizophrenia.

Acetylcholine

- Responsible for: voluntary movement and memory.


- Key to Alzheimer's Disease.


Norepinephrine

- Responsible for: mood.


- Too much = mania; Too little = Depression.

Endorphin

- Inhibitory natural opiates.


- Too much decreases perception of pain.

Agonist (Medication)

- Facilitates neurotransmitters.


- Mimics receptor and other substances by mimicking other transmitters.


- Blocks re-uptake.


- Blocks enzymes that break neurotransmitters.


- Builds precursors.

Antagonist (Medication)

- Blocks/inhibits a neurotransmitter.


- Increases re-uptake.


- Increases enzymes that break neurotransmitters.


- Blocks receptors.


- Decreases precursors.


Central Nervous System (CNS)

- Consists of the brain and spinal cord.


- Responsible for coordinating the senses and all activity from the whole body.


- Branches out to integrate with the Peripheral Nervous System.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

- Consists of nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord.


- Connects the Central Nervous System with the limbs, organs, and extremities.

Somatic System (Part of PNS)

- Controls skeletal and voluntary muscles as well as the sense organs.

Autonomic System (Part of PNS)

- Controls involuntary systems such as the digestive system, the heart, and lungs.


- Two Types:


1. Sympathetic: Increases arousal.


2. Parasympathetic: Decreases arousal.

Hindbrain

- Developmental categorization of the CNS.


1. Medulla


2. Cerebellum


3. Pons

Medulla

- Part of the Hindbrain.


- Controls involuntary systems such as heartbeat, breathing, coughing, blood circulation, etc.

Cerebellum

Controls balance and muscle coordination.

Pons

- Acts as a relay station for the hindbrain to the rest of the brain.


- Responsible for sleeping and waking.

Midbrain

- Associated with motor control, vision, hearing, sleep and wake, arousal, alertness, and body temperature regulation.


- Contains the RAS (Reticular Activating System).

Reticular Activating System (RAS)

- Part of the Midbrain.


- Acts as a relay station and filtering device.


- Involved with arousal and waking.


- The RAS is the reason why you can distinguish your own name in a noisy surrounding.

Forebrain

- Forward-most part of the brain as well as the most evolved.


- Has four parts:


1. Limbic System


2. Hippothalamus


3. Thalamus


4. Cerebral Cortex

Limbic System

- Involved with emotions and memory.


- Has four parts:


1. Amygdala


2. Septum


3. Hippocampus


4. Cingulate Gyrus

Amygdala

- Turns on aggression when stimulated.

Septum

- Turns off aggression when stimulated.

Hippocampus

- Involved with memory.


Cingulate Gyrus

- Turns on pleasure after eating favored foods or after sex.

Hippothalamus

- Responsible for homeostasis and controls body temperature, pituary glands, sleep, sex drive, hunger, and thirst.

Thalamus

- Acts as a relay station.

Cerebral Cortex

- Contains the Corpus Callosum, the largest white matter in the brain .


- Contains a left and right hemisphere.


- Consists of four parts:


1. Frontal Lobe


2. Temporal Lobe


3. Parietal Lobe


4. Occipital Lobe

Frontal Lobe

- Part of the cerebral cortex.


- Responsible for personality and advanced thinking.

Temporal Lobe

- Part of the cerebral cortex.


- The auditory cortex.

Parietal Lobe

- Part of the cerebral cortex.


- The sensory cortex.

Occipital Lobe

- Responsible for vision.

Hormones

- Chemicals that travel in the bloodstream and serve a similar function as neurotransmitters.

Melatonin

- Hormone responsible for mood and sleep.


- Found in the pineal gland.

Throxine

- Hormone responsible for growth, metabolism, and mood.


- Found in the thyroid gland.

Estrogen / Progesterone

- Associated with the female reproductive system and its secondary sexual characteristics.


- Found in the ovaries.

Testosterone

- Associated with the male reproductive system and its secondary sexual characteristics.


- Found in the testes.

Pituary Gland

- Located at the base of the brain and is controlled by the hypothalamus.


- Responsible in the control of release of hormones from many other important glands such as the thyroid, testes, and ovaries.

Adrenal Gland

- Located at the top of the kidneys.


- Responsible for the release of adrenaline which controls the body's response to stress and danger.

Pheromones

- Hormones that mark territory and signal desire.


- Unclear if they contribute to human behavior.