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92 Cards in this Set

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dichotomous dining
-Dual approach to eating
-Consumers demand low fat healthy foods but crave high fat sweets and treats
quilt cuisine
-Increased demand for unique taste of ethnic foods and exotic spices/ingredients
speed & feed (dashboard dining)
-Trend where consumers routinely circle through fast foo restaurants for their meals
speed scratch cooking
-Home cooked meals put together with little time and effort, using pre-mixed products that can be cooked quickly
5 a day
-Most consumers eat several small meals throughout the day
-Changed the concept of "meals" and "snacks"
night eater
-A type of eating style
-Wakes up in the middle of night and raid the fridge or eat just before going to bed
compulsive eater or eating addict
-Use food to block out fears or as a substitute for love
-Eat constantly often until they are sick
-Some are closet eaters
-Rarely sits down to an entire meal
liquid drinker
-Drinks alot of coffee, soft drinks, and/or alcohol
-Get most calories from liquids
-Diet's low in essential nu=trients and fibre
traditional overeater
-Trained to eat 3 meals a day in tradition to snacks
-Food represents security, family and love
-May encounter opposition from family if they try to change eating habits
environmental eater
-Adverts, parties, luncheons, sight and smell of food trigger an eating episode
-Eat because food is available
-Although impulse eater, they usually have regular meals
gastronomic overeater
-Love to cook
-More concerned with food quality than calories
-Eat because food gives them pleasure
-Seldom eat large quantities/have food between meal snacks
snacker
-Become overweight due to ignorance or indifference to nutrition
-Never eats real meals
-Prefer to snack on foods they enjoy
-Likely to try fad diets and pills
convalescent overeater
-Sudden lack of excercise with no reduction in calories leads to weight gain
-Use food to relieve boredom, frustration, and depression during convalescence
-Almost 2/3 of those recovering from accident, surgery, or illness
chronic dieter
-Know everything about dieting but cannot lose weight
-Have tried it all
-Usually looking for instant result
-Usually women in their 30's-40's
eating disorder
Self imposed semi-starvation, feast and famine cycles, binge eating, purging and regular consumption of non-food substances such as paint chips and clay.

more common in females than in males
anorexia nervosa
-An eating disorder characterized by extreme weight loss, poor body image, and irrational fears of weight gain and obesity
-Refusal to maintain weight that is over the lowest weight considered normal for age and height. They starve themselves of food
-Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, eventhough underweight
-They become cold easily and have unusually low heart rates, dry skin, low B.P, absent or irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and poor pregnancy outcomes
-1/10 anorexic people starve themselves to death
bulimia nervosa
-An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of rapid uncontrolled eating of large amounts of food in a short period of time (binge eating)
-Episodes of binge eating are often followed by purging. Minimum average of 2 binge eating episodes a week at least 3 months.
-A feeling of lack of control over eating during the binges
-Regular use of laxatives or diuretics
binge eating disorder
-An eating disorder characterized by periodic binge eating with normally isn't followed by vomiting or the use of laxatives
pica
-Regular consumption of non-food substances such as clay or laundry starch
-Young children and pregnant women are most likely to engage in the practice; for unknown reason, it rarely occurs in men
geophagia
Clay or dirt eating
Clay and dirt consumption can block the intestinal tract and cause parasitic and bacterial infections. Also associated with iron deficiency anemia in some individuals
pagophagia
Ice eating
May be common during pregnancy.
amylophagia
-Laundry starch or corn starch eating
-The sweet taste and crunchy texture of flacked laundry starch are attractive to a small number of women, especially during pregnancy.
-Corn starch may be used if the preferred laundry starch isn't available
plumbism
Lead eating, usually from paint flakes
The regular consumption of the sweet-tasting lead -based paint chips from old
sensory evaluation
A multidisciplinary science that uses humans to measure the acceptability and sensory properties of food and other materials
subjective test method
-Uses humans to measure opinion about or an emotional reaction to a product
-Measure how much you like a product (its acceptability) or your preference for one product over another
-Less reproducuble
triangle test
Participants are given 3 coded samples and told to choose the sample that is most different. 2 of the samples are usually the same (only the researcher knows)

A(311) or B(565) or A'(971)
duo-trio test
1 reference sample and 2 test samples. Choose the test sample that matches the reference sample

A(ref) or B(565) or A'(971)
paired comparisson
participants are given 2 samples and have to choose one that has the highest attribute. E.g. (which of the following is sweeter?)

B(565) or A'(971)
objective test method
-Measure the presence and/or intensity of specific attributes in the product using a test equipment
-these tests are free of personal bias and are reproducible. E.g. (a colour meter can be used to determine colour of a food product.)
water
-Is an essential nutrient
-constitutes about 60% of an adult's body weight
water hardness
Presence of mineral salts
temporarily hard water
can be softened by boiling during which minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron precipitate out.
permanently hard water
Cannot be softened by boiling because the mineral are not precipitated by heat
carbohydrates
-Includes sugars, starches, and fibres
-Consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-Formed in green plants through photosynthesis where by the sun's energy converts carbon from the atmosphere and water from the soil into glucose
monosaccharides
-Simple sugars ; 1 unit
-Includes 6 carbon hexoses & 5 carbon pentoses
disaccharides
-Simple sugars ; 2 units
-Consists of 2 mono saccharides linked together
oligosaccharides
-Simple sugars ; 3-10 units
-Carbohydrate molecules that contains 10 or fewer mono saccharides
-Includes raffinose and stachynose commonly found in dried beans
-Not digested by humans but broken down by bacteria in intestinal tract resulting in gas formation
polysaccharides
-Complex sugars ; many units
-Complex carbohydrates
-Up to several hundred thousand mono saccharides joined together
-May be straight chains or highly branched chains
hexose
sugars such as glucose, mannose, fructose, and galactose (building blocks of starches)
pentose
sugars such as ribose, xylose, and arabinose (building blocks of fibre and gums)
glucose
-Form of sugar that articulates in the bloodstream. it is broken down in the body to give 3 products:
energy, water, CO2
-Found in fruits, plant juices and honey
-Most abundant sugar in the world
fructose
-Found in fruits, plant juices, and honey
-Sweetest of all common sugars
-Very solluble and doesnt crystallize easily
galactose
-Not normally found in its free form in foods
-Forms a bond with glucose to produce lactose (milk sugar)
-The basic unit of some complex carbohydrates such as vegetable gums
sucrose
-"table sugar"
-Extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets
-Consists of glucose and fructose chemically bonded to each other
-Present with other sugars in fruits, honey, and vegetables
lactose
-Milk sugar
-Consists of glucose and galactose chemically bonded to each other
-Only found in milk and milk products
maltose
-Found in germinating grain and corn syrup. a product of starch hydrolysis.
-Important for production of malted beverages such as beer
-Consists of 2 glucose molecules chemically bonded to each other
homoglucan
composed of the same type of mono saccharides joined together
heteroglucan
composed of at least 2 types of mono saccharides
starch
-Basic storage form of carbs inplants found in abundance in seeds, roots
amylose
-Has a linear chain structure
amylopectin
-Has a highly branched structure
-Most natural starches consists of mixtures of amylose and amylopectin
25% and 75%
-Normal starch consists of _____ amylose and _____ amylopectin
gelatinization
-When starch granules swell when heated in water
-Responsible for the thickening that occurs when a starch pudding sauce is cooked.
water holding capacity
ability of food to hold water
bound water
-when water in food's held extremely tightly
-becomes part of the structure of large molecules such as proteins and carbs and no longer has the properties as free water
true
true or false: the more h20 that is bound, the less activity of the h20.
water activity
-the amount of free water available in a food
-scale of 0-1
true
true or false: h20 is an important solvent
true
true or false: h20 is used as a cleaning agent for food and equipment. it removes soil, residues and microorganisms depending on the rigour used in washing
dextrins
-homoglucans
-produced when starch molecules are partially broken down by enzymes, acid or dry heat
-formed from cornstarch when corn syrup is made, when bread is toasted, or when flour is heated/browned
-have less thickening power than starch and are brown in colour
glycogen
-homoglucan
-storage form if glucose in animals
-during digestion, carbs (eg. starch) are hydrolyzed to glucose which is absorbed into the blood
-stored in the liver and muscles temporarily until hydrolyzed to help maintain blood glucose levels or used as fuel by muscles
plant fibres
-a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose, betaglucans, pectins, and gums
-binds minerals
hemicellulose
insoluble fibres
pectin and gums
-soluble fibres
-best for inhibiting cholesterol absorption
21-38 grams/day
recommended daily intake of fibre
cellulose
-homoglucan
-consists of many glucose linked together by beta bonds to form a linear chain
hemicellulose
-heteroglucan
-also found in plant cell wlls
-contains a variety of different monosaccharide building blocks (eg. pentoses and hexoses)
-greatest effect is in baked goods where they improve the water binding of flour
betaglucans
-homoglucan
-composed of glucose units that are linked together by beta bonds
-less linear than cellulose and more soluble in water
-oats and barley are rich sources
-forms a viscous hydrated mass that traps bile acid and reduces the amt of cholesterol absorbed into the body in the G.I. tract
-good for diabetes as a means of controlling blood sugar levels
pectic substances
found in both cell walls and space between plant cells. aid in cementing plant cells together
galacturonic acid
(derivative from galactose) is the basic building block of pectic substances
pectin
-a pectic molecule common in fruits and is responsible for forming gels in various jams, jellies, and preserves
-commercially produced from apple cores or citrus peel
vegetable gums or hydrocolloids
-long chain polysaccharides
-various hexose and pentose sugars are the basic building blocks
-dissolved in water, they produce a thickening or texture building effect
-gums can help to retain water, reduce evaporation rates and modify ice crystals formation
-widely used in the food industry
carboxymethylcellulose
used as a bulking agent in low calorie foods and in fruit fillings
gum arabic
used to stabilize carbonated drinks
xanathan gum
used for cloud stabilization in orange juice
seaweed extracts
(agar, alginate, carrageenan)
plant seed gums
(locust bean gums, guar gum)
plant exudates
(gum arabic, gum tragacanth)
microbial gums
(xanathan gum, dextran)
modified cellulose
(carboxymethlcellulose, methyl cellulose)
methyl cellulose
used in reformed potato products and in coat and batters to reduce oil absorption
corn
-ground to make cerals and tortillas
-extracted cornstarch
true
true or false: cornstarch can be hydrolyzed to produce corn syrup (glucose and dextrin)
durum wheat
milled to form "semolina" or course flour, used to make pasta.
true
true or false: gluten protein is what gives pasta dough its elasticity
wheat
-composed of bran, germ, and endosperm
bran
-outer layer of a wheat grain
-high in vitamins and fibre
germ
-the sprouting part of the wheat.
-high in vitamins and fat
endosperm
-part of a wheat grain that is high in carbohydrates
true
true or false: the bran and germ are removed during milling and the endosperm is made into flour
true
true or false: plant carbohydrates, especially corn starch are also being used in production of ethanol - a more environmentally friendly fuel additive used in gasoline to reduce sulfur chloride emissions
true
true or false: brewing of beer goes back over 6000 years and the methods have mostly stayed the same