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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the nutrients with antioxidant properties?
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
What is it called when an atom gains an electron?
What is it called when an atom loses an electron?
What is a reactive oxygen species (ROS)?
Oxygen molecule that becomes a free radical
Where do free radicals form and what do they do there?
In phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes

They steal electrons
What 3 things do free radicals damage?
LDLs, cell proteins, and DNA
What are the three types of antioxidants?
Antioxidant vitamins

Antioxidant minerals

Antioxidant enzymes
How do antioxidant minerals work against free radicals?
They act as cofactors within enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that can be excreted
How do antioxidant vitamins work against free radicals?
donate their electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce oxidation damage
What converts free radicals to less damaging substances, such as hydrogen peroxide?
Superoxide dismutase
What removes hydrogen peroxide from the body?
What does superoxide dismutase do?
Convert free radicals to less damaging substances, such as hydrogen peroxide
Which precursor to Vitamin A has antioxidant properties?
What are the two forms of vitamin E?
What is alpha-tocopherol?
The most active and potent form of Vitamin E. Found in food and supplements
What is tocopherol?
The biologically active forms of vitamin E
What is added to oil-based foods and skincare products to reduce rancidity and spoilage?
Vitamin E
What is used for normal nerve and muscle development?
Vitamin E
Does Vitamin E affect the immune system?
Yes, it enhances it
What vitamin promotes better vitamin A absorption?
Vitamin E
What Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fatty cell components, and LDLs from oxidization (lower heart disease risk) ?
Vitamin E
RDA for Vitamin E?
15 mg alpha-tocopherol per day
UL of vitamin E?
1000 mg alpha-tocopherol per day
What destroys vitamin E?
Exposure to oxygen, metals, UV light, heat
Is there a high or low amount of vitamin E in deep-fried, processed foods?
Low amount
What is the recommended intake for beta-carotene?
There is none right now
What is the recommended intake for selenium?
55 micrograms
What interacts with coagulants in high amounts? (aspirin, coumadin)
Vitamin E
Long-term toxicity of Vitamin E can cause what?
Hemorrhagic stroke
Deficiency of what vitamin leads to anemia?
Vitamin E
Deficiency of what vitamin is associated with fat malabsorption?
Vitamin E
What vitamin is used to synthesize hormones, carnitine, bile, neurotransmitters, and collagen?
Vitamin C
What form does Vitamin C convert to after donating protons to free radicals?
Dehydroascorbic acid
How many protons can ascorbic acid donate to free radicals before becoming dehydroascorbic acid?
2 protons
What are the cancer-causing agents found in cured and processed meats that Vitamin C is used to reduce?
What vitamin regenerates oxidized vitamin E?
Vitamin C
What vitamin enhances absorption of iron?
Vitamin C
RDA for men/women of Vitamin C?
90 mg/day (men

75 mg/day (women)
UL of vitamin C per day for adults?
2,000 mg/day
How much additional Vitamin C do smokers require each day?
35 mg/day
What is vitamin C destroyed by?
Heat and oxygen
What effects do steaming, microwaving, and stir-frying have on vitamin C?
Minimizes loss of it
What is hemachromatosis?
Condition of excess iron accumulation in the body
High risk of vitamin C deficiency occurs in who?
People with low fruit and vegetable intake, and people with alcohol and drug abuse
What unit is beta-carotene expressed in?
Retinol Activity Equivalents
How many molecules of vitamin A result from one molecule of beta-carotene?
What form of vitamin A results from cleavage of beta-carotene?
Is beta-carotene a strong or weak antioxidant?
Where does beta-carotene fight lipid oxidation?
in cell membranes
Beta-carotene prevents age-related impairment of what?
What foods are sources of beta-carotene?
Red, orange, yellow, and deep-green fruits and vegetables
What affect does heat have on digestibility and absorption of beta-carotene?
Improves digestibility and absorption
What are the active forms of Vitamin A?
Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
Where is vitamin A mainly stored?
In the liver
Which form of Vitamin A improves cell differentiation, but not vision or sexual reproduction?
Retinoic acid