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206 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Weekly weight gain for the 1st 6 months of life...
5-7 oz
By 6 months the birth weight is..
doubled
By 12 months the birth weight is..
tripled
Height increases by how many inches and cm the first 6 months of life..
Increases by 1 in / 2.5 cm
At 1 year, height is increased by what %
50%
Head circumference increases ___/month from birth - 3 mos
2 cm (0.75 in)/mos
Head circumference increases ___/month from 4-6 mos
1 cm (0.4 in)/mos
Head circumference increases ___/month from 6-12 mos
0.5 cm (0.2 in)/mos
Average head circumference at 6 mos is...
17 in / 43 cm
Average head circumference at 12 mos is...
18 in / 46 cm
1 inches = ___ cm
2.5 cm
Posterior fontanel fuses/ossifies when?
6-8 weeks
Anterior fontanel fuses/ossifies when?
12-18 months
Posterior fontanel is made up of which sutures?
Sagital and lamboid sutures
Anterior fontanel is made up of which sutures?
Coronal, frontal and sagital sutures
When are chest and head circumference equal?
1 year
Labyrinth righting appears at __ and is strongest at __
appears at 2 mos, strongest at 10 mos
Neck righting (fencing) appears at __ and lasts until __
appears at 3 mos and lasts until 24-36 mos
Landau reflex appears at ___ and lasts until
apears at 6-8 mos and lasts until 12-24 mos
Parachute reflex appears at ___ and lasts...
appears at 7-9 mos, and lasts indefinitely
Binocularity beings by __ and is well established by __
begins by 6 weeks, and is well established by 4 months
Depth perception (stereopsis) begins to develop by ___
7-9 months
Infant shows interest in a picture of a face with eyes by __
6 weeks
Infant can follow light to midline of body at __
1 month
Visual acuity at 1 month is __
20/100
Infant can recognize a bottle at __
3 months
Responds to facial expressions at __
6 months
Recognizes parents at __
6 months
Able to distinguish familiar faces and strangers by __
6 months
Stranger anxiety begins at __
6 months
At 6 months, infant respiration rate is _____ and _____ stable
RR is slow and relatively stable
At 6 months infants respirations are accomplished with ____ muscles
abdominal
Short, straight eustachian tube makes infant more prone to ____
ear infections
At 6 months infant has ___ HR
slow
At 6 month infant has a sinus arrhythmia...which means the heart rate ____ on expirations and ____ on inspirations
increases on expirations and decreases on inspirations
During the 1st 2 months, systolic BP (SBP) ____
increase
During the 1st 3 months, diastolic BP (DBP) ___
deacrease
Fetal hemogolobin (HgbF) is present during which months
first 5 months
Phsysiologic anemia is common in the first ____ months
2-3 months
Infant can tolerate 3 meals, 1 evening bottle and 2-3 bowels/ day when?
1 year
Start to introduce table foods when?
6 months
Deglutition means...
swallowing
How do you initiate Santmyer Swallow reflex?
Gently but abruptly blow a puff of air into infants fact to initiate a spontaneous swallw
Nutritive sucking is...
purposeful for food intake
Nonnutritive sucking is..
purposeful for the infants urge to suckle
teeth eruption begins at ___
5 months
First 2 teeth to erupt are...
2 lower central incisors
Vernix caseosa:
white substance that covers infants skin, helps with immunity and to protect skin intergrity
Endocrine system is _______ at birth but its functions are _____
developed at birth but function are immature
Prehension grasps is seen at ____
2-3 months...use of hands and fingers to grasp an object
Hand is predominately closed at ___
1 month
Hand is loosely open at ___
3 months
At ___ months infant grasps object more with eyes than w/ hands
3 months
Holds rattle at ___ months
3 months
Pulls at blankets and clothing at ___
3 months
Hand-eye coordination begins at ___
3 months
Regards both a small pellet & the hands then looks from object to hands and back again at ___
4 months
Inspects and plays with hands, pulls blanket over face in play at __
4 months
Can carry object to mouth at ___
4 months
Tries to reach for object but overshoots at ___
4 months
Uses Palmar grasp at __
5 months
Grasps object voluntarily at ___
5 months
Plays with toes at ___
5 months
Takes objects to mouth at ___
5 months
Holds one cube while regarding a 2nd one at ___
5 months
Increase manipulative skills at ___
6 months
Holds bottle at ___
6 months
Grasps feet and pulls to mouth at ___
6 months
Can feed themselves a cracker at ___
6 months
Resecures a dropped object at ___
6 months
Drops one cube when given another at ___
6 months
Transfers objects from one hand to another at ___
7 months
Use 1 hand for grasping (unidextrous approach) at ___
7 months
Holds a cube in each hand at same time at ___
7 months
Enjoys banging objects at ___
7 months
Explores movable parts of a toy at ___
7 months
Rakes at small objects at ___
7 months
Beginning of Pincer Grasp (using index finger, 4th and 5th finger) at ___
8 months
releases object at own will at ___
8 months
Rings bell purposely at ___
8 months
Retains 2 cubes while regarding 3rd cube at ___
8 months
Secures an object by pulling on a string at ___
8 months
Reaches persistently for toys out of reach at ___
8 months
Has "crude" (raw) pincer grasp (((not perfected))) at ___
9 months
Preference for dominant hand at ___
9 months
Grasps 3rd cube at ___
9 months
Compares 2 cubes by bringing them together at ___
9 months
Deliberatey release and object & will offer it to someone else at ___
10 months
Grasps bell by the handle at ___
10 months
Well established pincer grasp at ___
10 months
Ability to pick up a raisin or other finger foods at ___
10 months
Perfected pincer grasp at ___
11 months
Puts objects into container and like to remove them at ___
11 months
Explores objects more thoroughly at ___
11 months
Drops objects deliberately so they can be picked up at ___
11 months
Sequential play (one object, after another, after another into container) at ___
11 months
Can turn pages in a book many times at ___
12 months
Release cube in cup at ___
12 months
Attempts to build a tower of 2 blocks but fails at ___
12 months
Tries to insert a pellet into a narrow-necked bottle but fails at ___
12 months
Asymmetric tonic neck reflex (birth - ____) which prevents infant from rolling over
3 months
Symmetric tonic neck reflex: 3 months...helps infant into ____ position
crawling
Can momentarily hold head in midline and parallel when suspended ventrally and can lift head from bed and turn head from side to side when prone at ___
1 month
COMPLETE head lag at ___
1 month
Less or partial head lag when pulled to siting at ___
2 months
When held in sitting position, head is help up but bobs forward at ___
2 months
Prone position, can lift head 45 degrees of table at ___
2 months
Can maintain head in same plane as rest of body when held in ventral suspension at ___
2 months`
ALMOST no head lag at ___
4 months
Balances head well in siting position at ___
4 months
Able to raise head and chest off surface to angle of 90 degree bear wt. on forearms at ___
4 months
NO HEAD LAG when pulled to sitting position at ___
5 months
Head control very well established by ___
6 months
Lifts head when about to be pulled to sitting position at ___
6 months
Lifts head, chest and upper and and bears weight on hands at ___
6 months
In supine position, spontaneously lifts head off table at ___
7 months
Rolls from back to side ((supine to side)) at __
4 months
Turns from abdomen to back ((prone position to supine position)) at __
5 months
Rolls from back to abdomen ((supine position to prone position)) at ___
6 months
Back is uniformly rounded while sitting at ___
1-3 months
Convex lumbar curve appears when sitting at ___
4 months
Able to sit or long periods of time when back is well supported and straight at ___
5 months
Sits in high chair with back straight at ___
6 months
Can sit alone, leaning forward on hands at ___
7 months
Sits steadily unsupported at ___
7 months
Can go from prone to sitting at ___
10 months
Bears weight on forearms at ___
4 months
When held in standing position, can bear almost all of wt. at ___
6 months
When prone, bears wt. on one hand at ___
7 months
Bears full weight on feet w/ assistance at ___
7 months
Moving forward on with belly on floor is known as?
Crawling
Moving forward with belly OFF floor is known as?
Creeping
Begins to crawl at ___
8 months
By ___ months crawling turns into creeping
9 months
Pulls self to standing position while holding onto furniture at ___
9 months
Stands while holding onto furniture, sits by falling down at ___
10 months
Cruises or walks holding on to furniture or with both hands held at ___
11 months
Walks while holding onto furniture or with both hands held at ___
11 months
Cruises well at ___
12 months
Walks w/ one hand held at ___
12 months
May attempt to stand alone momentarily, may attempt FIRST step ALONE at ___
12 months
By ___ months recognizes they are separate from their parents
12 months
Smiles in a mirror aat ___
5 months
LOVES smiling in mirror at ___
9 months
Solitary play means?
Playing side by side, but not with other children
Separation anxiety begins at ___
4-8 months
at ___ months STRONG anxiety about mother leaving..
8 months
At ____ infant is able to predict when mother is getting ready to leave..
11-12 months
BEGINS to fear strangers at ___
6 months
Strong fear of strangers and fear of the dark and bed at ___
8 months
Defention: "excessive self-centered and immature behavior, resulting from the failure of parents to enforce consistent, age-appropriate limits" ???
Spoiled Child Syndrome
Infant develops nocturnal pattern of sleep at ____ and sleeps for ____ hours
3-4 months; 9-11 hours
1st means of verbal communication is...
crying
Crying infant: can be source of great distress for parents; explain that __________ is normal
"unexplained fussiness"
Infant makes small, throaty sounds; comfort sounds while feeding at ___
1 month
Infant squeals to pleasure; coos, babbles, chuckles, vocalizes when smiling; talks a great deal when spoken to at ___
3 months
Makes consonant sounds: n, k, g, p, b at ___
4 months
Laughs aloud, gugles, more cooing at ___
4 months
Starts to imitate sounds; babbling resembles 1 word syllable words: ma, mu, da, di, hi at ___
6 months
Produces vowel sounds and chained syllables: baba, dada, kaka and talks when others are talking at ___
8 months
Comprehends NO-NO at ___
9 months
Says dada, mama with meaning at ___
9 months
Says 3-5 words besides dada, mama at ___
12 months
Comprehends several words at ___
10 months
Recognizes objects by name at ___
12 months
One words may be said such as hi, bye, no at ___
12 months
Imitates animal sounds at ___
12 months
Understands simple commands such as "give it to me" at ___
12 months
Watches parents face intently at ___
1 month
Social smile at ___
2 motnhs
Recognizes familiar faces, objects (bottle) at ___
3 months
Enjoys social interaction, bored if left alone, begging to show memory, fusses to demand attention at ___
4 months
Smiles at image in mirror at ___
5 months
Personable; laughs when head hidden in towel at ___
6 months
Plays peek a boo at ___
7 months
Displays oral aggressive behavior at ___
7 months
Starts showing fear of going to bed or being left alone at ___
9 months
Dislikes dressing, diaper change at ___
8 months
Puts arms in front of face to avoid being washed at ___
9 months
Waves bye-bye at ___
10 months
Plays "pat a cake", pulls clothes of other for attention at ___
10 months
Object permanence fully developed at ___
10 months
shakes head no-no at ___
11 months
Shows emotions; especially in fearful situations; clings to parents/security blanket (or transitional object) at ___
12 months
1st primary (deciduous) teeth to erupt are the __________
lower central incisors
For 1-6 months, ______ milk is most desirable
HUMAN milk (colosutrum)
All infants receive daily supplement of 400 I.U. of _________ in first few days of life to prevent ______ and ________ deficiency
400 I.U. of Vitamin D in first few days of life to prevent rickets and vitamin D deficiency
Stool is yellow, golden, pasty consistency, odor similar to sour milk if infant is _______ fed
Breast-fed
Stool is pale, yellow to light brown, firmer, more offensive odor if infant is ______ fed
Formula def
1st stool of newborn infant that occurs within 24 hours of birth is called?
Meconium
Vitamin D supplementation until infant is consuming 1L/day or 1 qt/day of _________________
of Vitamin D-fortified formula
Non-breast fed taking < 1 L/day of Vit. D fortified formula need to take: __________daily
Vitamin D supplement
If still breasfeeding after 4-6 months, ____ supplementation needed ((_____________ is recommended))
Fe (Iron).....Fe fortified cereal is recommended
Acceptable alternative to breast feeding for 1-6 months is _____________
commerical Fe-fortified formula ((supplies all nutrients needed for first 6 months of life))
For first 6 months of life, cow's milk, skim milk and other animal milk, imitation drinks are _________
NOT ACCEPTABLE
Flouride supplementation is not required for breast fed children in first 6 months of life b/c of risk of _______
Fluorosis ..... ((may be necessary if he breast-feeding mother's H2O supply doesn't have the required amt. of fluoridation))
____ causes botulism.
Honey
Avoid Honey ________ months
1st 12 months of life
Add solid foods to diet, one at a time at ___
6 months
Best first food to introduce is _____________
Fe-fortified infant cereal (( low allergy potential and easy to digest))
After 6 months, _______ can be mixed with rice cereal
Fruit juice....((vit. c enfances iron in cereal))
Introduce ONE food every _______
5-7 days
Good foods to introduce after cereal........
Strained, pureed, mashed finely followed by vegetables and finally meats
At _____ months introduce crackers or other finger and teething foods.
6 months
Serve well-cooked HEALTHY table foods at ___
1 year
DO NOT ADD SOLID FOODS to diet before _____ months
4-6 months