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70 Cards in this Set

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How many double bonds does Oleic acid have?
1
How many double bonds does Linoleic acid have?
2
How many double bonds does Linolenic acid have?
3
How many double bonds does Arachidonic acid have?
4
Saturated means __ double bonds
0
Unsaturated means ___ double bonds
One or more
Saturated fatty acids end in...
-anoic
Unsaturated fatty acids end in...
-enoic
Four classes of unsaturated fatty acids:
1. n-7
2. n-9
3. n-6
4. n-3
What is the parent fatty acid for n-7?
Palmitoleic acid
What is the parent fatty acid for n-9?
Oleic acid
What is the parent fatty acid for n-6?
Linoleic acid
What is the parent fatty acid for n-3?
Linolenic acid
Naturally occurring UNSATURATED fatty acids in mammals are ___ configuration.
CIS
Animal fats:
____% saturated fatty acids
____% MUFAs
40-60%
30-50%
Plant oils:
____% saturated fatty acids
____% unsaturated fatty acids
10-20%
80-90%
Eicosanoids are bioactive compounds that _____ cellular function and are derived from ___-C PUFAs.
Modulate; 20
What are the 8 main classes of eicosanoids?
1. PG
2. TX
3. HPETE
4. HETE
5. EET
6. diHETE
7. LT
8. Lipoxins
PGs are synthesized from the ____ and ____ families.
Linoleic (n-6) and Linolenic (n-3)
Important enzyme involved with PGs...
Cyclooxygenase
What 3 eicosanoids are "hormone like"?
PG, TX, and LT.
Important enzyme involved with LTs...
Lipoxygenase
What are the two PGs that are formed from arachidonic?
PGl2 and TXA2
PGl2, aka ____, is synthesized by ____ cells.
Prostacylin, endothelial
TXA2, aka ___, is synthesized by ____.
Thromboxane, platelets
Thromboxanes are often considered PG ____ because of their similar structures.
Analogues
The essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acids is due to the fact that ______ lack _____.
Vertebrates lack enzymes.
What are the 2 enzymes that vertebrates lack?
Delta 12 and delta 15 desaturases
How does aspirin help in terms of a fever/pain caused by PGs and TXs?
Aspirin decreases the synthesis of both PG and TX by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase (enzyme).
LTs (leukotrienes) cause harm in the body in terms of...
Respiratory issues (asthma, allergic reactions, inflammation...). They are 1000X MORE potent than histamine!
Lipoxins appear to be specific _____ ______.
Intracellular regulators.
Arachidonic is in the ___ FA class.
n-6
Which FA is considered omega-3?
Linolenic
Acylglycerols are the principle ____ fats in humans.
Storage
Acylglycerols (glycerides) are ___ of FAs bound to ____.
Esters, glyercol
Phosphoglycerides are ____ ____ of diglycerides.
Phosphate esters
Phosphoglycerides form ____ when dispersed in an aqueous solution, thus making them the main _____ component of cell membranes.
Bilayers, structural
All sphingolipids contain ____ and ___, but none contain ____.
Sphingosine; FA; glyercol
The hydrolysis of sphingomyelins yields 4 components:
1. FA
2. Spingosine
3. Choline (think of brain)
4. Phosphoric acid
Glycosphingolipids (glycolipids) contain ____, a combo of sphingosine and FA (plus galactose).
Ceramine
Sterols contain an OH group at C-__ and an aliphatic chain of at least __C attached to C-___.
3; 8; 17
Steroids include (3):
1. Steroid hormones
2. Bile acids
3. Sterols
Instead of cholesterol, plants have ____.
Phytosterols
Phytosterols have same structure of cholesterol, but instead have __C attached to C-17 and an ___ group attached to C-___.
10; ethyl; 24
The primary bile acids (2):
Cholic acid & chenodeoxycholic acid
The secondary bile acids (2):
Deoxycholic acid & lithocholic acid
What are the primary and secondary acid pairs?
1. Cholic acid and deoxycholic acid
2. Chendeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid
How do you get from primary to secondary bile acids (2)?
Intestinal bacteria can convert primary to secondary bile acids via:
1. Deconjugation
2. 7a-dehydroxylation
Conjugated bile acids or bile salts are ___ derivatives of nonpolar cholesterol, making them ____.
Polar; amphipathic
The 3D structure and biological properties of proteins are determined by (3):
1. Kinds of amino acids present
2. The order in which they are linked together in a polypeptide chain
3. The relationship of one amino acid to another
What are the 8 essential amino acids?
1. Tryptophan
2. Valine
3. Threonine
4. Leucine
5. Isoleucine
6. Phenylalanine
7. Methionine
8. Histidine
What is a zwitterion?
Has a net charge of 0 (making it electrically neutral) but carries a + and - charge on different atoms.
Why do amino acids have 2 pKa's?
Because of their dissociable COOH and NH3+ groups (could act either as a base or an acid).
What is the only amino acid that doesn't exhibit stereoisomerism?
Glycine!
What does proteolysis (peptide-bond hydrolysis) require?
Either:
1. Proteolytic enzymes
or
2. Heating at 110C for 24 hrs in the presence of 6M HCl or NaOH
Even though there are about ___ amino acids in nature, only ___ occur in proteins.
300; 20
What are the 5 categories of amino acids?
1. Aromatic R-groups
2. Positively charged
3. Negatively charged
4. Polar, uncharged
5. Nonpolar, aliphatic R-groups
What are the 2 aromatic R groups?
1. Phenylalanine
2. Tryptophan
What is the positively charged R groups?
1. Histidine
What are the 2 polar, uncharged R groups?
1. Threonine
2. Methionine
What are the 3 nonpolar, aliphatic R groups?
1. Valine
2. Leucine
3. Isoleucine
What two properties contribute to the 3D structure on individual polypeptides?
Solubility and ionization
What determines the structure of a protein?
Interactions between a polypeptide and its aqueous environment.
Which structure refers to the # and sequence of amino acids?
Primary
Which structure has the a-helix?
Secondary
Which structure refers to the coiling/folding to produce fibrous or globular shapes?
Tertiary
A fibrous shape is ____ and water-____.
Elongated; INsoluble
Globular shapes are ____ and water-____.
Spherical; soluble
What are the 8 biological functions of proteins?
1. Enzymatic activity
2. Transport
3. Storage
4. Structure
5. Contraction
6. Protection
7. Hormonal activity
8. Toxins
What do bile salts do to dietary lipids?
Solubilize