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87 Cards in this Set

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Following receipt of a bachelor's degree in sociology, Yolanda joined the Peace Corps. Now, at 25 years of age, she is reviewing her employment options by examining her personal needs and goals, interests, abilities, and opportunities and has made a tentative occupational choice. In light of Super's developmental stages, Yolanda is
A in exactly the right stage.
B head of expectations.
C behind expectations.
D not in any of Super's stages.
behind expectations
In a person-centered approach to groups, which of the following dynamics or process patterns is NOT likely to occur?
A Expression of negative feelings.
B Confrontation.
C Cracking of facades.
D Practicing disputing.
Practicing disputing
Defense mechanisms help control anxiety by protecting the ego from demands made by the id and superego. Which of the following is a defense mechanism?
A Reaction formation.
B Dependence.
C Transference.
D Diffusion.
Reaction formation
In a private mental health agency, your supervisor asks you to take an individual into counseling who has been her acquaintance for some years. After seeing the 'acquaintance' three times, the supervisor asks to see your file since she made the referral to you to begin with. You
A give your supervisor a 'skeleton' file.
B stop seeing the client and refer the client elsewhere.
C ask the client for written permission so you can talk to your supervisor if she has a legitimate 'need to know.'
D report your supervisor to an ethics grievance committee.
ask the client for written permission so you can talk to your supervisor if she has a legitimate 'need to know.'
With the pressure for accountability, many mental health agencies ask their clients to complete evaluation forms following counseling. In assessing this self-report data, it is important to be aware of
A scale deficiencies.
B 'halo' effect.
C normative comparisons.
D interrater reliability.
'halo' effect
A counselor is about to begin a short-term group for whom generating insight is NOT an issue. The counselor is most likely to choose
A psychoanalytical or TA approaches.
B behavioral or reality approaches.
C client-centered or Gestalt approaches.
D Adlerian or cognitive approaches.
behavioral or reality approaches
A change in the forces in one part of a closed system affects the entire system. This can be accurately applied to
A the Holland hexagon.
B a support group.
C force-field analysis.
D Johari window.
Johari window
Which of the following statements is NOT accurate?
A Some counselor behaviors may be specified in an ethical code but not in a legal code.
B Some counselor behaviors may be specified in a legal code but not in an ethical code.
C Some counselor behaviors may be specified in neither the legal nor ethical codes.
D A good code of ethics covers all counselor behaviors.
A good code of ethics covers all counselor behaviors.
In her career development theory, Linda Gottfredson identified four stages of development experienced by children. During the second stage, children begin to rule out some jobs as not appropriate for them. This stage is characterized by an orientation of children to
A sex roles.
B internal, unique characteristics of self.
C size and power.
D social valuation.
sex roles
Jaime, a sixteen year old sophomore, has developed a pattern of skipping classes. His homework is seldom completed and when it is, it does not represent his ability level. His parents have begun to look for an appropriate counselor for him. Although they don't know all the approaches available, Jaime might be helped best with a counselor using theoretical concepts from
A behavioral and existential.
B person-centered and rational emotive behavior.
C Adlerian and psychoanalytic.
D Gestalt and reality.
Gestalt and reality
Which of the following persons has been called the Father of Individual Psychology?

A) Freud
B) Ellis
C) Rogers
D) Adler
D) Adler
A child has trouble understanding that the amount of juice she sees being poured is the same amount when it is in her sippy cup and when it is in her baby brother's bottle. She believes the narrower bottle has more juice. She is in the developmental stage labeled by Piaget as

A) concrete operations
B) sensorimotor operations
C) pre-formal operations
D) innuitive thinking stage
A) concrete operations
Alice is very afraid of flying. She starts with her counselor by talking about a flight. She ends the session by drawing a plane. She next time talks about her concerns looking at her picture, and then looks at three other pictures of planes. The third time she starts by looking at the plane pictures and seeing a model of a plane. She holds the plane model and starts to discuss a plan to visit the airport. This script mirrors a therapy technique called

A) Imagination therapy
B) REBT
C) Narrative Adjustment
D) Desensitization
D) Desensitization
Victor Frankl is known for

A) Marriage therapy
B) Logotherapy
C) Cross cultural counseling
D) Spiritual counseling
B) Logotherapy
You are not certain that the test you are using is really measuring the anxiety trait you are interested in. It is correct to say that you are concerned about the test's

A) Integrity
B) Reliability
C) Validity
D) Standardization
C) Validity
During a group counseling meeting, a member makes several depressed remarks about his life. He mentions that he would be better off dead. Things progress for the group toward other issues and he is quiet. During the middle of the session he makes angry and threatening remarks towards his girlfriend. He states that he wants to kill her for flirting with a neighbor. The session moves to discussions of betrayal. At the close of the session he again repeats that he would be better off dead since people always betray him. As a counselor you are

A) Required ethically to be silent about issues in the counseling sessions
B) Required ethically to see him for private sessions only
C) Required legally to be silent about issues in the counseling session
D) Required legally to warn his girlfriend of his behavior
D) Required legally to warn his girlfriend of his behavior
The shadow is an archtype that

A) Does not exist in psychoanalytic theory
B) Is the selfish side of the ego
C) Is the judge of the superego
D) Encompasses everything a person refuses to acknowledge
D) Encompasses everything a person refuses to acknowledge
At a conference you hear a colleague talking about concerns of symptom substitution with a young client whose parents are pushing for rapid symptom reduction. You make the assumption that this colleague is

A) A behavioral counselor
B) A Logotherapist
C) An analytically trained counselor
D) A cognitively trained behaviorist
C) An analytically trained counselor
A conditioned association in a person means

A) An unlearned association
B) An instinctive association
C) An operant
D) A learned association
D) A learned association
All behavioral reinforcers

A) Always raise behavioral probability
B) Always are positive
C) Do not raise behavioral probability
D) Never are positive
A) Always raise behavioral probability
11. In a normal curve

A) The standard distribution is equal to the mode
B) The curve is not symmetrical
C) The mean, median, and mode are at the same point
D) The curve is symmetrical and the standard deviation equals four
C) The mean, median, and mode are at the same point
In attempting to understand the life perspectives and characteristics of their clients, some counselors use Kohlberg's theory of moral development as a theoretical framework. These counselors know that Kohlberg's theory includes three progressive levels culminating in:

A principled thought, wherein the individual adopts a self-accepted set of standards of behavior
B personhood, wherein the individual is free from moral dilemmas
C self-actualization, wherein the individual is fully humanistic
D androgyny, wherein the individual exhibits both male and female stereotypic behaviors
A principled thought, wherein the individual adopts a self-accepted set of standards of behavior
A professional counselor determines fees for monthly consultation services on a job-by-job basis. This is an example of which of the following types of reinforcement schedules?

A Variable Interval
B Fixed Interval
C Fixed Ratio
D Variable Ratio
D Variable Ratio
Research on the development of a person in a so-called "humanistic life outlook" has shown that it is facilitated by:

A formal educational experiences
B observational learning experiences
C diverse interpersonal interactions
D All of the Above
D All of the Above
When persons who are characteristically shy and withdrawn participate in "assertiveness training," initially they experience uncertainty and self-doubt. Counselors refer to this social psychological concept as:

A dissociation
B acculturation
C cognitive dissonance
D individuation
C cognitive dissonance
"Men (used here to mean all people) are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them." This quote, attributable to Epictetus, most closely describes the counseling theory developed by:

A Carkhuff
B Freud
C Rogers
D Ellis
D Ellis
The counseling technique in which the counselor intensifies the client's emotional state in order to help the client understand the irrationality of the emotional reaction is known as:

A Paradoxical Intention
B Reconfiguration
C Confrontation
D Systematic Desensitization
A Paradoxical Intention
Counselors know that groups are formed for different purposes. For example, in some groups the primary goal is to yield some specified outcome, or "product," while in others the primary goal is to focus on the "process" of interaction within the group. Which of the following types of groups is more product than process oriented?

A Behavioral
B Client Centered
C Adlerian
D Transactional-analysis
A Behavioral
In the context of group counseling, members that are high in conformity also tend to be high in:

A Superiority
B Independence
C Authoritarianism
D Intelligence
C Authoritarianism
A counselor who structures a career counseling group to help group members understand a "fields and levels" approach to careers is following the theory of:

A Tiedeman
B Holland
C Super
D Roe
D Roe
The concept of "career maturity" has been described and researched most extensively by:

A Ginzberg
B Hoyt
C Tiedeman
D Crites
D Crites
Person A and Person B both took the same test. Person A got a score of 100 while Person B got a score of 75. In order for a counselor to determine whether the difference between their scores was because of "chance," the counselor would need to know which of the following characteristics of the test:

A Standard Error of Measurement
B Standard Error of the Mean
C Mean
D Standard Deviation
A Standard Error of Measurement
A person got a score of 85 on a norm-referenced test. This means that the person:

A insufficient information
B mastered 85% of the material covered in the test
C achieved a score of better than 83% of those taking the test
D answered 83 questions correctly
A insufficient information
A counselor conducted a study intended to evaluate the effectiveness of ongoing group career counseling on the vocational maturity of high school sophomores. The study was begun in September and continued until June. This study is particularly susceptible to which of the following threats to the validity of an experiment?

A Reactive effects of experimentation
B Multiple treatment interference
C Regression
D Maturation
D Maturation
A counselor designs a study where two experimental groups and one control group complete pre- and post-experiment measures of self-concept. The subjects were not randomly assigned to the groups because of scheduling problems. Which of the following techniques is MOST appropriate for analyzing the resultant data?

A Correlated t-tests
B Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test
C Analysis of covariance
D Analysis of variance
C Analysis of covariance
You have been providing career counseling to a client who is seeking employment. Concurrent with the counseling, and with your knowledge, the client has made application for employment with several employers. A potential employer calls you and asks for your opinion as to your client's suitability for the employer's job opening. Under which of the following conditions are you free; i.e., not in violation of professional ethics, to provide the information requested?

A When you are certain that the information you would provide would assure that the client would get the job
B When it is clear that the client will not get the job unless the information is given
C When in your best judgment you believe the information would enhance the client's chances for getting the job
D None of the Above
D None of the Above
As applied to professional licensure of counselors, the term "reciprocity" means that:

A a licensed counselor may legally perform the functions of a licensed psychologist
B one licensing agency agrees to accept the licensing standards of another as sufficient for its own
C certification is synonymous with licensure
D graduation from a fully accredited counselor education program automatically constitutes eligibility for licensure
B one licensing agency agrees to accept the licensing standards of another as sufficient for its own
Susie is playing with blocks and is trying to build a tower; she tries but cannot build a
tower. Susie’s mother helps her build a four-block tower. Later, Susie builds a four-block
tower without her mother’s help. According to Vygotsky, the inability to build the tower on
her own is known as:
a. scaffolding
b. the zone of proximal development
c. assisted discovery
d. learning by imitation
B. “Scaffolding”
According to Erickson, when an individual fails to develop a strong sense of identity, the
individual will have troubles with the development of:
a. autonomy
b. initiative
c. intimacy
d. integrity
C intimacy
Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in Freud's theory of personality
development?
a. Oral, genital, latency, anal, phallic
b. Genital, anal, phallic, oral, latency
c. Latency, phallic, oral, anal, genital
d. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
3. D Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Jacob’s father tells Jacob to clean his room. When Jacob asks why, his father responds,
“Because I said so.” The father’s response is most representative of which parenting style?
a. Uninvolved
b. Authoritarian
c. Authoritative
d. Permissiv
B Authoritarian
Harry Harlow used baby monkeys and several different kinds of “surrogate mothers” to
investigate which factors are important in early development and attachment. According to
his findings, baby monkeys:
a. preferred a soft terrycloth “mother” to a wire-mesh “mother” that held a bottle
b. preferred a wire-mesh “mother” that held a bottle to a soft terrycloth “mother”
c. showed no preference
d. preferred neither “mother”
A preferred a soft terrycloth “mother” to a wire-mesh “mother” that held a bottle
Which of the following is a myth about suicide in the United States?
a. Male suicide is four times higher than that among females. Copyright NCEStudyQuestions.com which has no affiliation with the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC)
and is not approved or endorsed by the NBCC. These are unofficial practice questions.
b. It occurs in age groups of 90 years and up.
c. Psychiatrists, physicians, and dentists are most prone.
d. Asking someone about suicide may push that person over the edge.
D Asking someone about suicide may push that person over the edge.
Cody does what his parents say because he doesn’t want to lose his television privileges.
This is an example of what level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
a. Integrity versus despair
b. Preconventional
c. Conventional
d. Postconventional
B Preconventional
Josie likes to play peek-a-boo with her little brother, Jack. According to Piaget, Jack finds
this game fun because he has acquired ____________, which is one of the primary tasks of the
sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
a. conservation
b. dual representation
c. object permanence
d. reversibility
C object permanence
The theorist associated with bonding and attachment is:
a. Bowlby
b. Adler
c. Freud
d. Piaget
A Bowlby
Henry, a 72-year-old widower, reminisces with his daughter about his life. He talks
about his successes and regrets. This is an example of Erikson’s:
a. intimacy stage
b. generativity stage
c. industry stage
d. ego integrity stage
D ego integrity stage
When it comes to displaying aggression, girls more often engage in ____________
aggression than boys.
a. hostile
b. instrumental
c. relational
d. physical
C relational
All of the following are physical characteristics of Down Syndrome EXCEPT:
a. short, stocky build
b. almond-shaped eyes
c. large hands and feet
d. flattened face
C large hands and feet
Which of the following statements is true when considering cultural and familial
influences on self-esteem?
a. Chinese and Japanese children have higher self-esteem than North American children,
mainly because their cultures have higher academic standards for achievement.
b. Boys tend to have lower self-esteem than girls. Copyright NCEStudyQuestions.com which has no affiliation with the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC)
and is not approved or endorsed by the NBCC. These are unofficial practice questions.
c. African American children tend to have lower self-esteem than Caucasian children.
d. An authoritative parenting style usually allows children to have especially high self-esteem.
D An authoritative parenting style usually allows children to have especially high self-esteem
Research on gay and lesbian parents indicates:
a. Their children are maladjusted.
b. They are as dedicated to and effective at child rearing as are heterosexual parents.
c. They are less dedicated to child rearing than heterosexual parents.
d. Their children are parented harshly and inconsistently.
B They are as dedicated to and effective at child rearing as are heterosexual parents
In the Stanford prison study, what caused the guards to treat the prisoners harshly?
a.Their instructions from the researchers
b.The uncooperative behavior of the prisoners
c. The social context
d. The pressure the guards got from one another
C The social context
In the original studies, Milgram and his colleagues found that people were more likely to
disobey under all of the following circumstances EXCEPT when __________.
a. the victim was in an adjoining room so the “teacher” heard every sound the victim made
b. two experimenters had conflicting demands about the continuation of the experiment
c. the person ordering them to continue was an ordinary man, apparently another volunteer
d. the subject worked with peers who refused to go further in the procedure
A the victim was in an adjoining room so the “teacher” heard every sound the victim made
In the Stanford prison simulation, male college students agreed to participate in an
experiment to discover what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and
guards. The researchers found that __________.
a. within a short time the prisoners became distressed and panicky, with accompanying
emotional and physical ailments
b. a small percentage of the guards became tyrannical and abusive in order to maintain the
social structure of the prison
c. the “tough but fair” guards urged the tyrannical guards to lighten up on the prisoners
d. all of the prisoners and the guards became harsh and abusive
A within a short time the prisoners became distressed and panicky, with accompanying
emotional and physical ailments
In what ways do stereotypes distort reality?
a. Stereotypes exaggerate the differences that exist between groups.
b. Stereotypes exaggerate the differences that exist within groups.
c. Stereotypes produce many differing perceptions by many people.
d. Stereotypes demonstrate that members of a group can be different.
A Stereotypes exaggerate the differences that exist between groups
Jennifer has to choose between spending the evening at home with her parents or
spending the evening babysitting her younger sister. Jennifer does not like either of these
choices. This situation describes an:
a. approach-avoidance conflict
b. avoidance-avoidance conflict
c. approach-approach conflict
d. avoidance vector
B avoidance-avoidance conflict
Connie tells each of her clients that the best way she can help them is to attempt to look
at the world from the client’s point of view. This counselor is taking the _________ perspective.
a. etic Copyright NCEStudyQuestions.com which has no affiliation with the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC)
and is not approved or endorsed by the NBCC. These are unofficial practice questions.
b. alloplastic
c. emic
d. autoplastic
C emic
Working with individuals from different cultures requires that the counselor:
a. have sensitivity to the needs of the individuals
b. make a referral to another counselor
c. have knowledge about the different cultures
d. Both A and C.
D Both A and C.
A high standard of counseling practice when working with diverse populations involves
all of the following EXCEPT:
a. treating all clients the same way
b. acknowledging and confronting their own biases and prejudices
c. adapting one’s knowledge and skills to meet the clients’ needs
d. educating oneself as completely as possible regarding the clients’ cultural context
A treating all clients the same way
When working with individuals from different cultures, the effective counselor may not:
a. use language similar to the client’s
b. maintain good eye contact at all times
c. be cognizant of the context
d. honor religious beliefs
B maintain good eye contact at all times
Murray is a bright student, but he procrastinates. He puts off writing term papers and
gets incompletes, which eventually become Fs. Murray’s therapist helps him establish small,
specific goals rather than vague, long-range goals. The therapist also asks Murray to keep a
diary of how he is spending his time when he is avoiding his studies. The method used to
help Murray deal with his problem is __________ therapy.
a. psychodynamic
b. behavioral
c. Gestalt
d. existential
B behavioral
The social-learning perspective is to the psychodynamic perspective as __________ are to
_____________.
a. bodily events; social and cultural forces
b. social and cultural forces; bodily events
c. environmental conditions; unconscious dynamics
d. unconscious dynamics; environmental conditions
C environmental conditions; unconscious dynamics
The process of saying freely whatever comes to mind in connection with dreams,
memories, fantasies, or conflicts, in the course of a psychodynamic therapy session, is
referred to as __________.
a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. free association
d. exposure treatment
C free association
Which of the following is not a behavioral therapy?
a. Flooding Copyright NCEStudyQuestions.com which has no affiliation with the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC)
and is not approved or endorsed by the NBCC. These are unofficial practice questions.
b. Skills training
c. Exposure
d. Unconditional positive regard
D Unconditional positive regard
The primary goal of __________ therapy is to find meaning in life.
a. rational-emotive
b. reality
c. existential
d. transactional analysis
C existential
Which of the following pairings of problem and the most successful therapy for that
problem is INCORRECT?
a. Childhood behavior problems and existential therapy
b. Specific phobias and systematic desensitization
c. Depression and rational-emotive therapy
d. Panic disorder and behavior therapy
A Childhood behavior problems and existential therapy
The bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and
client is called the _______.
a. therapeutic window
b. therapeutic alliance
c. clubhouse model
d. window of opportunity
B therapeutic alliance
The bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and
client is called the _______.
a. therapeutic window
b. therapeutic alliance
c. clubhouse model
d. window of opportunity
B therapeutic alliance
An apparent treatment success that is due to the patient's expectation or hopes rather
than the treatment itself is called ____________.
a. the placebo effect
b. the nocebo effect
c. the therapeutic window
d. an empirically validated treatment
A the placebo effect
In _________ therapy, the therapist uses logical arguments to challenge a client's
unrealistic beliefs or expectations.
a. client-centered
b. rational-emotive behavior
c. existential
d. aversive conditioning
B rational-emotive behavior
Systematic desensitization and "flooding" are ___________ therapies.
a. behavioral
b. psychodynamic
c. reality
d. Adlerian
A behavioral
Which of the following types of psychotherapists would be most likely to use free
association and transference?
a. Rational-emotive behavior therapists
b. Behavior therapists
c. Psychodynamic therapists
d. Client-centered therapists
C Psychodynamic therapists
_________ is a humanist approach that emphasizes the tragic aspects of life, the burden of
responsibility, and the need to face the inevitability of death.
a. Social interest
b. Psychoanalysis
c. Existentialism
d. Self-actualization
C Existentialism
According to Carl Rogers, __________ is love and support given to another with no strings
attached.
a. the condition of worth
b. unconditional positive regard
c. existentialism
d. self-actualization
B unconditional positive regard
Which of the following pairs of personality theorists and perspectives is INCORRECT?
a. Abraham Maslow; existentialist
b. Carl Rogers; humanist
c. Carl Jung; genetic
d. Sigmund Freud; psychodynamic
C Carl Jung; genetic
Which of the following terms is associated with transactional analysis?
a. Free association
b. Unconditional positive regard
c. Irrational beliefs
d. Complementary transactions
D Complementary transactions
Which one of the following does NOT belong with the other three?
a. Horney
b. Glasser
c. Adler
d. Jung
B Glasser
What was the outcome of the 1976 the Tarasoff case in California?

A Counselors are required to protect a client's confidentiality under all circumstances except suicide
B Counselors are now required to get permission from their clients in order to warn their clients intended victims to not violate confidentiality and privileged information
C Counselors are now required to warn their clients intended victims even when the warning violates both confidentiality and privileged information
D Counselors are not liable for their clients' actions outside of their sessions
C - Counselors are now required to warn their clients intended victims even when the warning violates both confidentiality and privileged information
What does Duty to Protect mean?

A Counselors are required to protect potential victims of their clients
B Counselors are required to protect their clients from suicide
C Counselors are required to protect children from abuse
D Counselors are required to protect other counselors' privileged information when consulting on cases
B - Counselors are required to protect their clients from suicide
What responsibility does a counselor have with regard to a client's potential for suicide?

A The counselor should have procedures and guidelines in place for handling suicide risks
B The counselor should be aware of suicide risk referral possibilities
C The counselor should be thoroughly familiar with signs that a client may be planning suicide
D All of the above
D - All of the above
What are the the principles of ethical decision-making?

A beneficence, not causing harm, duty to protect, fairness, and duty to warn
B beneficence, not causing harm, respect for freedom of choice and self-determination, fairness, and honoring commitments
C duty to protect, not causing harm, duty to warn, fairness, and beneficence
D beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, justice, and duty to protect
B - beneficence, not causing harm, respect for freedom of choice and self-determination, fairness, and honoring commitments
What is the purpose of the ACA Code of Ethics?

A Establishes principles of ethical behavior to which all ACA members must adhere
B Establishes principles of ethical behavior to which all mental health professionals must adhere
C Establishes guidelines of ethical behavior to which all counselors should strive to attain
D Establishes laws of ethical behavior to which all ACA members must adhere
A - Establishes principles of ethical behavior to which all ACA members must adhere
What term does Minuchin use to describe the copying of a family's style by a counselor in family therapy?

A Perverse triangle
B Mimesis
C Skeleton keys
D Integrative psychotherapy
B - Mimesis
What term does Hayley use to describe the situation in which two members of a family team up against another member in an effort to reduce his/her authority during family therapy?

A Perverse triangle
B Mimesis
C Skeleton keys
D Integrative psychotherapy
A - Perverse triangle
What is the integration of multiple therapy approaches, used by 30% to 50% of therapists?

A Structural Family Therapy
B Mimesis
C Systems therapy
D Integrative psychotherapy
D - Integrative psychotherapy
What trem does Steve deShazer use to describe a standard intervention that can be used in dealing with several problems in family therapy?

A Perverse triangle
B Mimesis
C Skeleton keys
D Integrative psychotherapy
C - Skeleton keys
In family therapy the abbreviation XO, X means _______ and O indicates ________.

A treatment, observation
B problem, treatment
C diagnosis, treatment
D diagnosis, observation
A treatment, observation

Can also indicate a measurement, score or dependent variable