Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/224

Click to flip

224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

American Bitterns have vertical markings on their breast because the stripes:

allow bitterns to hide in cattail marshes

Mullerian Mimicry is when:

a number of animals, non-related and all armed with some defence, look like each other

True or False: Giant Swallowtail caterpillars look like bird droppings. This is known as masquerade.

True

The head of a Chipping Sparrow has a black line through the eye and a white stripe above it. These marks are called

disruptive patterns

if you see a caterpillar covered in yellow and red spines, you would suspect that it

has a strong chemical defence

Underwing Moths look just like tree bark. But if a bird sees one and pecks at it, the moth opens its wings and this happens:

bright patterns suddenly appear and startle the bird

Monarch butterfly caterpillars are not good to eat because they contain cardiac glycosides (terpenoids). They get these by eating milkweed leaves. The way they acquire the toxins is known as:

sequestering

True or False: Snakes spend winter deep in the ground, beneath the frost line, in hibernacula

True

Inchworm caterpillars looks like twigs. This defence is known as:

masquerade

True or False: Skunks are black and white because this colour pattern makes them better camouflaged for night activity.

False

True or False: Virginia Opossums play dead when frightened

True

True or False: Many insects have membranes that function as ears for detecting danger

True

Mullerian Mimicry is when

a number of animals, non-related and all armed with some defence, look like each other

Bright colours worn by insects that are poisonous are known as

aposematic colouration

Terpenoids serve this purpose

they taste bitter and thus serve to deter an animal from eating a plant

Flocking in birds offers this benefit:

a flock provides more eyes to watch for danger and lessens the odds of being caught for each bird in the flock

True or False: Snakes spend winter deep in the ground, beneath the frost line, in hibernacula

True

True or False: In the Far North, many animals are larger and more rotund than their southern relatives. This feature is known as Bergmann's Rule

True

You see 200 Cedar Waxwings in one tree all eating berries. This is an example of

a single-species flock

When Hog-nosed Snakes are frightened, they do this:

play dead

The subnivean space allows:

small mammals to better survive cold temperatures in winter

True or False: Alkaloids are chemical defences that taste very bitter and repel animals

False

True or False: Mallards (ducks) are able to see behind their heads and in front of them at the same time.

True

If an insect eats Balsam Fir, it never matures into the adult stage because it ingests a lot of this chemical defence:

phytojuvenile hormone

True or False: Porcupines have quills coated with antibiotics and can shoot them up to 1 metre.

False

A Polar Bear is very large and rotund (round). This shape conforms to

Bergmann's Rule

True or False: The tapetum lucidum is an adaptation for seeing at night.

True

In preparation for winter, Beavers do this

add lots of mud to the outside of their lodge for insulation

When Hog-nosed Snakes are frightened, they do this

play dead

Gulls, ducks, and geese can stand on ice without freezing their feet because of this adaptation

a counter-current heat exchanger known as the rete mirable is activated in winter

A harmless moth looks just like a harmless beetle. This is an example of:

NOTHING

When frightened, a Killdeer "freezes" and allows this adaptation to help protect it:

breast bands for disruptive colouration

Giant Swallowtail caterpillars have a great secondary defence. This is:

sticking out a bright red osmetarium from their head (to look like a snake)

A moth sits camouflaged on a tree trunk. When disturbed, it opens its wings and two large eyespots appear. These:

camouflage the moth (by looking like holes in leaves) & startle the predator

Autotomy is the ability to shed a body part and regrow it. This is a defence of:

five-lined skinks

True or False: Alkaloids are chemical defences that taste very bitter and repel animals

False

An insect eats a plant and continues to stay in its juvenile state and cannot change into an adult. It likely ate:

balsam fir

Animals in northern areas tend to be paler than animals farther south. This principle is known as:

Gloger's Rule

The main defence of Anglewinged Butterflies is:

masquerade

Bright colours worn by insects that are poisonous are known as

aposematic colouration

True or False: Monarch caterpillars sequester cardiac glycosides from milkweeds

True

Insects that swim at the surface of ponds often have this defence:

bicolouration

An analogous structure:

has the same function as another structure on a different animal but arises from a different part of the body

True or False: Snails and slugs use sharp mandibles for ingesting plant material

False


caterpillars have these!

This structure is analogous to a bird's gizzard:

mammalian cheek teeth

Flight intercept traps are prey-capturing adaptations used by:

orb-weaver spiders

True or False: The Hyoid Process (Horns) is an important adaptation for filtering food from moving water (i.e., what clams use to extract their food).

False


The Hyoid Process is for extending tongues

True or False: Black Fly larvae attain their food by filter-feeding in water

True

True or False: Crab Spiders do not make webs but hide on flowers; one species is able to change its colour to better match the flower on which it sits

True

Large masseters indicate that an animal eats:

tough plant tissues

Moose go to beaver ponds and shallow lakes in summer to:

acquire sodium from aquatic plants

Mixed Function Oxidases are:

enzymes that counteract plant toxins making them safe to eat

You can tell an Orb Weaver Spider web from a Sheet Web Spider web because:

Sheet Web Spider webs look "messy" with vertical knock-down strands and a cone in the middle of the web under which the spider sits while Orb Weaver webs are beautiful vertical structures with complex strand patterns

Snakes are able to analyze scents with this structure:

Jacobson's Organ

True or False: Birds that eat a lot of seeds and other hard plant parts often swallow small stones to help with the physical breakdown of the food

True

True or False: The American Bittern puts its beak in the air to change its shape

True

What animal lies on the forest floor and uses the high contrast pattern on its body to blend in?

Ruffed Grouse

________ folds in its legs to background match with a tree.

Grey Tree Frog

True or False: Grey Tree Frogs can change their skin pigment to green to mimic the lichen on trees

True! This is an example of mimicry!

Eastern Screech Owls sit on the outside of holes of trees to:

become a bark mimicry

This animal is brown in the summer and white in the winter due to seasonal colour change:

Snowshoe Hare



Many song birds have eyelines and eyestrips. This is an example of:

Disruptive Pattern

This animal has breast bands:

Killdeer

This animal has a chin strap to disrupt its shape:

Canada Goose

This insect uses its shaped wings to resemble dead leaves

Angled Wing Butterfly

This insect resembles an alive leaf

Katydid

This insect looks like bird poop

Giant Swallowtail

This animal hides by having a two tone body

Whirligig beetle

This insect swims upside down because its bicolouration is backwards

Backswimmer

Deers have a lighter belly than the rest of their body. This makes them look one dimensional. This is an example of:

Counter Shading

This insect uses brightly coloured under wings to startle predators:

underwing moths

This insect has giant fake eyes on its underwing

Polyphemus moth

This animal's startle pattern is bright yellow on the inside of its legs

Grey Tree Frog

A Giant Swallowtail's startle pattern is:

Its osmeterium (red horns)

This caterpillar makes giant webs to live in without food

Eastern Tent Caterpillar

This caterpillar makes giant webs to live in with food

Fall Webworm

This caterpillar is brown and orange and fuzzy

Woolly Bear Caterpillar

This lizard has a bright blue tail that falls off when touched

Five Lined Skink

Some snails shells are made of:

Calcium

Warning colouration is also known as:

Aposematic Colouration

True or False: Ladybugs manufacture their toxins

True

What plant do Monarch Caterpillars sequester their toxins from

Milkweeds

What poison is sequestered from milkweeds?

Cardiac Glycoside

Does the Milkweed Tussock Caterpillar sequester?

Yes

This beetle will actually give you blisters:

Blister Beetle

Skunks spray this:

Sulfur Alcohol

When animals share similar appearances and are both poisonous

Müllerian mimicry


ex: wasp & bees

When two animals share appearances but one is not poisonous:

Batesian Mimicry


ex:


Monarch (poisonous & model)


Viceroy (not poisonous & mimic))

True or False: There has to be more mimics than models for Batesian mimicry to work



False



________ puffs up as its secondary defence

American Toad

True or False: Hog Nosed Snake swells up as a defence

True

Define Thanatosis

Playing dead


ex: Virginia Opossum

A group of white tail deer together is called a:



Yard

Flocking is a:

Bird group defence



Murmuration is:

Thousands of birds flying in crazy pattern


(youtube video from class)

When birds come together as a preemptive defence and try to drive away predator:

Mobbing

This insect is a body guard for Aphids:

Carpenter Ant

Why do Carpenter Ants Guard Aphids?

Aphids suck suck juices from plant and release sugary sap from their backsides that Carpenter Ants eat

True or False: Deer can pivot their ears

True

Insects use _______ to "hear"

Membranes that vibrate due to sound

Can snakes hear?

No, but they can feel vibrations on the ground

Snakes determine where their prey is by using:

Jacobson's Organ

True or False: Moose have olfactory sense and Jacobson's organ

True

This hare's eyes are placed so they can see 360°


Snowshoe Hare

True or False: Eyes on the side of the head allow for greater depth perception

False

_____ are modified leaves:

Spines

_______ are epidural out growths, like hairs

Prickles

When new rose buds resemble prickles this is called:

Automimicry

_______ are modified branches

Thorns

What are Trichomes?

They are plant "hairs" that can have glue like stuff on them and form a defence barrier against small insects who try to walk through them.

_______ have Trichomes that have chemicals inside them that burn

Stinging Nettles

______ have an INDUCIBLE defense which means when the plant is in water it does not have Trichomes but when it is above water it grows Trichomes

Water Smartweed

Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Pectin are all examples of:

Structural defences

This gives cherry pits their hardness:

Lignin

_______ is found ins Horsetails as a structural defence:

Silica

True or False: Tannis are astringent (dries plant) and makes them hard to eat

True

________ taste bitter and DO NOT contain nitrogen

Terpenoids

Toxins that contain nitrogen are called

Alkaloids

This is the hormone that causes insects to mature:

Phytoecdysones

______ are full of Phytoecdysones

Braken Fern

______ causes insects to not mature

Phytojuvenile hormone

________ contain phytojuvenile hormone

Balsam Fir Trees

Phytoestrogen messes up __________ in insects

The reproductive system

_____ causes the skin to be susceptible to light

Phototoxins

An example of a plant that demonstrates aposematic colouration is:

Mustard

When body temperature is determined by environment temperature:

Ectothermic

When body temperature is determined internally:

Endothermic

_____ is a type of hair that traps body heat in

Underfur

True or False: Pale colours retain heat better

True

Who's rule states that paler animals are more north?

Gloger's Rule

______ rule states that short extremities are better in the cold

Allen's

______ rule states a low surface area to volume ratio is better in the cold

Bergmann's

Why does the Arctic Fox have a long fluffy tail?

To keep its face warm when it sleeps

How can ducks & birds stand on ice in the winter without their feet getting frozen?

Counter Current heat exchanger (aka the Rete Mirabile or wonderful net)

_______ has counter current vessels in snout to heat the air they breathe in

Red Fox

_____ is the ice crystal layer under the snow

Subnivean Space

_______ can lower their internal body temperature so that they don't waste energy trying to stay warm

Black Capped Chickadee

_______ is when an animal enters a deep sleep and lowers their body temperature

Torpor

Snakes are ectotherms & they survive by going below the frost line and becoming _______

Dormant

Turtles and frogs survive winter by:

Going under water and staying in a dormant state

Wooly bear caterpillar uses ______ to survive the winter

Glycerol (antifreeze)

All adult ______ die in the winter, however their eggs survive the winter

Praying mantids

______ has no water or sometimes has antifreeze

Ootheca (insect egg casings)

_____ has a gall with insects inside that can freeze

Golden Rod

Wood frogs, Spring peepers, Chorus frog are all:

Freeze Tolerant

Painted turtles' eggs survive the winter because they are:

Freeze Tolerant

______ go under periods of lethargy in trees or dens

Raccoons

Chipmunks go under long periods of ______ during the winter

Torpor

Bats go under periods of _____ during the winter

Torpor

During the winter black bears go into:

A period of Torpor

A _________ is an example of a true hibernator:

A groundhog (because their heartbeat is less than 8 per minute)

______ is a bear's rectal plug to stop them from pooping in winter

Tappen

True or False: Jumping mice are true hibernators

True

True or False: Snowshoe hares have small hind legs to help them traverse in the winter

False! Their hind legs are massive to help them get through the snow



_______ are when animals walk in a single file line through the snow to make a path

Browse lines

______ & _______ use their bodies as toboggans and slide

Otters & Minks

Song birds & Canada goose do this for the winter

Migrate

True or False: Butterflies (monarch), dragonflies, and bats all migrate for the winter

True

True or False: Red Knots have a 26,000km round trip for migration

True

_____ can double their body weight in 10 days

Sandpipers

_____ migrate at night because there are less predators, less wind, and the air cools them down

Songbirds

True or False: Blue jays migrate at night

False


They migrate during the day

Turkey Vultures conserve energy when flying by:

Thermal Hopping

True or False: Birds can navigate using the earth's magnet field

True

_____ is how they learnt about birds migration by attaching trackers to their legs

Banding

Motus is:

Towers that pick up nanotags on birds as they fly by

_____ is what plants become for winter. They do this by getting rid of all excess water in leaves and drawing all the water out of their cells

Cold hardy

Plants become cold hardy through:

Acclamation

Acclamation is triggered by:

Photoperiod (when the days start to get shorter)

This plant can heat up and melt the snow around it

Skunk cabbage

This insect uses the obelisk position to create shade in hot temperatures

Dragonflies

This animal stands on its tippy toes to keep its body away from hot sand

Tiger Beetle

Foxes and birds _____ to cool down

Pant

Evaporative cooling is used by:

Bees

True or False: Turkey Vultures poop on their legs to cool themselves down

True


They poop on their legs

Mourning dove keep cool by:

Allowing their body temperature to reach 45° C so that the outside temperature is actually cooler

An animal who eats dead plants is a:

detritivore

True or False: Clams are filter feeders

True

True or False: Adult Black Flies are filter feeders

False!


The Black Fly Larvae live in water and are filter feeders with the Labral Brushes in their mouths

Dabblers and Puddle ducks eat by:

Filter feeding by using their lamellae to catch organisms

The long tongue used by insects to get nectar from plants is called:

Proboscis

Humming birds use the _______ to extend their tongue

Hyoid Horns (muscle)


Can also sometimes be wrapped around skull

Insects use ______ to puncture plants to get their juices

Stylet

Slugs and Snails use the _______ to break plant tissue to eat

Radula (chainsaw conveyer belt)

Caterpillars use _________ to eat

Mandibles

Mamal's teeth that never stop growing and self sharpen are called:

Incisors

Moose use these to grind up their food:

Cheek Teeth

The muscles used by a Moose to grind up its food is called:

Masseters

An ____________ is when two different animals have structures that perform the same function but are from different origins


(ex: birds and insects both have wings to fly)

Analogous Structures

_____ have a gizzard instead of teeth to break down their food

Ruffed Grouse

______ & ______ produce enzymes to break down the plants they eat

Slugs & Snails

This insect does not produce enzymes to break down their food so they poop a lot and eat 10 times their body weight

Caterpillars

Moose don't have enzymes to break down their food so they have _______ to break down their food

Bacteria, which is held in their rumen

_______ is when a moose coughs up cud and then chews it again

Rumenation

_____ is when you eat your own poop

Coprophagy

______ are fruit eating specialists

Bohemian Waxwings

Seed Dispersers are:

Animals that eat fruits and then spit out the seeds

_______ uses its funny shaped bill to pry open pinecones to get the seeds from inside

Red Crossbill

True or False: Red Squirrels are able to use their incisors to open up cones and get the seeds from inside

True

What is an MFO

Mixed Function Oxidases & is used to neutralize toxins

True or False: Redheaded pine sawflies only eat pine needles

True

______ only eat a certain plant

Specialists


ex: monarchs only eat milkweed

______ eat a variety of food

Generalists


ex: beavers

Balsam fir and leaves are low in this nutrient

Sodium

Moose eat _____ because they are high in sodium

Aquatic plants

True or False: Watershield has 500 times more sodium than land plants

True

______ eats an animal without killing it

Parasite

______ eat dead animals

Scavenger

True or False:


Hawks have large eyes to allow more light in




Have a large number of cones in eyes to help see better




Can magnify their vision 2-3 times




Have their eyes placed on the front of their head for depth perception




Have a Retina Fovea to help find targets





True

True or False:


Owls have large eyes to let more light in




Have Glycogen- Rich rods in eyes to allow them to see better at night




Have eyes placed on the front of their head for good depth perception




Have a large blind spot so they are able to turn their head 270°

True

True or False: Dragonflies are visual hunters

True



_____ have their eyes half above water half under

Whirligig beetle

This type of spider can move its retina to change its field of view

Jumping spider

_____ spiders ambush their prey

Crab spiders

True or False: owls use their facial disks to capture sound

True

True or False: Owls ears are placed symmetrically on their head

False


They are placed one higher than the other

_____ & ______ use echolocation to track their food

bats & shrews

What is the Olfactory sense?

A set of cells used to track prey by scent

______ is when an animal stands still and uses its Olfactory sense

Flemen

Snakes use ______ to "smell" with their tongue

Jacobson's Organ

Raccoons touch sensitive paws are called:

Tactile Paws

Otter's whiskers are called:

Vibrissae

Orb Weaving Spiders build _______ webs that are called _______

circular webs that are called flight intercept traps

_______ spiders make horizontal webs at ground level or in tree crevasses

Funnel Weaver