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69 Cards in this Set

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A feature that can be focused on separatelybut cannot be understood without considering other features.

Dimensionsof person

Biological, Psychological andspiritual

Dimensionsof the environment

Physical, culture, social structure and social institution, formal organization,communities, social movements, small groups, families and dyads
Dimensionsof time

Linear time, Historical era, chronological age,


Patterns of group differences. (Socialgroups, people who share physical, cultural or social characteristics)


Individual level variations or difference among"


unearned advantages for some groupsand dis advantages for others. Created by social Categorization


Facts that are ordered in a meaningful way & a relationship betweenfacts is posited through observation, speculation, inspiration

What happens as hypothesis are tested?

As hypotheses are tested, Theoriesare developed and they allow us to make predictive statements about some aspectof reality.


symbols developed by a discipline to describe the phenomena with whichit is dealing…these are the LABELS we give to phenomena. They are the buildingblocks of a theory


a set of social prescriptions,“Thou-shalt” or “Thou shalt not” statements,Plus (+) the general common knowledge of the day.It is not a theory but theory is affected by ideology

What 3 things do theories do?

Theory saves energy, Theory Mobilizes Energy, Theory SelectsAttention

Describe the McKinley Family

RuthMcKinley-Mother of the family 79 years old, mother of Stanley McKinley, Reoccurringbreast cancer that has moved to her lungs, no longer receiving treatment, conditiondeteriorating. Not afraid of dying. Has estranged daughter. Had stroke 5 yearsold and left side paralysis

Sanley-50year old male, unemployed, Lost job 7 months ago, was in the army, hasn’t beenable to make mortgage payments for 3 months and house at risk for foreclosure

Marcia- 51year old female, works as police dispatcher, fell down the stairs and injuredher back and hip 4 months ago hadsurgery followed by complications, has been out of work on disability

Bethany 25year old female, Has been accepted in to bachelors program for nursing

- organized wholes comprising component parts that interact in a distinctway and endure over time. Is circular rather than liner


is the view that a non-reciprocalrelationship exists between events in a sequence, so that one event causes thenext event, but not vice versa. A+B=C


is the view that that causality isnon-linear, occurring instead within a relationship context and by means ofinteracting loops. Any cause is seen as an effect of some prior cause. Ex ofmother yells because child lies and child lies because mother yells


a membranethat determines what’s outside and what’s inside the system. It can be thoughtof as permeable or rigid.


a system with a boundary permeable enough to allow a high rate of exchangeof energy and information with the outside world.


a system with a boundary that is rigid, and therefore has little or noexchange of information or energy with the outside world.


The process through which systems change. The process of achieving a newhomeostasis


The processthrough which systems stay the same, or return to the same homeostasis.-

informationprocessing which begins to change the system’s operation in a circular fashion.


Keep doingwhat you’re doing –more correction is needed to get the system back to a steadystate


Stop doingwhat you’re doing! Otherwise things will change too much and the homeostasiswill be lost!

Big Ideas of the Psychodynamic Perspective

· Emotions have a centralplace in human behavior.

Big Ideas of the Psychodynamic Perspective

· Unconscious, as well asconscious, mental activity serves as the motivating force in human behavior.

Big Ideas of the Psychodynamic Perspective

· Early childhoodexperiences are central in the patterning of an individual’s emotions and,therefore, central to problems of living throughout life.

Big Ideas of the Psychodynamic Perspective

· Individuals may becomeoverwhelmed by internal and/or external conflicts and demands.

Big Ideas of the Psychodynamic Perspective
· Individuals frequentlyuse ego defense mechanisms to avoid becoming overwhelmed by internal and/orexternal demands.

· Human development occursin clearly defined age-graded stages.

Developmental Perspective

Each stage of life is qualitatively different from all other stages

Developmental Perspective

Each stage builds on earlier stages

Developmental Perspective

· Human development is acomplex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.

Developmental Perspective
·Moving from one stage tothe next involves new tasks and changes in statuses and roles.
SocialBehavioral Perspective
Human behavior is learned when individuals interact with theenvironment.-
Social Behavioral Perspective

· Similar learningprocesses taking place in different environments produce differences in humanbehavior.

Social Behavioral Perspective

· All human problems canbe formulated as undesirable behavior.

Social Behavioral Perspective

· All behavior can bedefined and changed.

Social Behavioral Perspective
Human behavior islearned by association of environmental stimuli, by reinforcement, byimitation, and by personal expectations and meanings.


· Each person is uniqueand valuable.

Humanistic Perspective

· Each person isresponsible for the choices he or she makes within the limits of freedom.

Humanistic Perspective

· People always have thecapacity to change themselves, even to make radical change.

Humanistic Perspective

· Human behavior can beunderstood only from the vantage point of the phenomenal self—from the internalframe of reference of the individual.

Humanistic Perspective

People make psychologically destructive demands on each other, andattempts to meet those demands produce anxiety.

Humanistic Perspective

· Human behavior is drivenby a desire for growth, personal meaning, and competence, and by a need toexperience a bond with others
Whatis schizophrenia
A psychotic disorder characterizedby hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, disturbances in emotion, andcognitive impairment
Howdo we know genetic are involved with schizophrenia
Because identical twins have the highestrisk. Children of schizophrenic parents have increased rates of schizophreniaas adults regardless of whether they were raised by ill family members or not…butrates were lower if adoptive family was healthy (6%) compared to dysfunctional(37%).
biologically based phenomena that seek discharge orexpression.

When and were do drives arise

Drives arise in thebody, They are unconscious, · They become conscious asthey seek expression (discharge)
A reservoir of unorganized instinctual drives, under the domination ofprimary process.
The ego is the executive organ of the psyche. It controls perception, contactwith reality, and delay or modulation of drive expressions (through the defensemechanisms).
establishes and maintains the moral conscience, based on a complexsystem of ideals and values internalized form the parents.
First instinct- FOOD FOOD FEED ME
I’m hungry, let me find some food
RobertW. White
Proposed that Mastery be viewed as a primary motivatingforce, equal in importance to libido and aggressive instincts. There is aninborn human need to master developmental, interpersonal, and environmentalchallenges. Human beings work toward achievinghigher and higher levels of competence for the sheer pleasure of doing so.Music, art, science, sports, etc. are pleasurable
Negotiating an important aspect of reality that one may actually perceive
: Individual’s attempts to adapt the environment tothemselves. If new ideas and processes are to be processed and accepted theymust fit first into the existing cognitive equilibrium.( For a child to learn to jump rope, she must first compare theskill to other’s she already has, such as jumping up and down, jumping over arock or a line, etc.)
This is the opposite of assimilation. The procedure of accepting newexperiences regardless of how different they may be from what we already know.( Focus is on the uniqueaspects of jumping rope. No comparisons are made with other forms of jumping)
The process of expelling, sending outward, or getting rid of unwanted orbad feelings (parts of the self) and placing them in others, in order todisavow those aspects of the self
The process of internalizing aspects of the object, or wholerelationships with the objects
The“good-enough” Mother
It’s not a question of doing these things perfectly. Frustration is a normal part of development. The criticalingredient is the mother’s attunement to the child’s changing developmentalneeds. If the child has been left alone too much too early, aloneness becomestoo separate, bleak, unbearable, empty. Children can be left alone (dropped)either physically or emotionally. Aloneness and loneliness then become the same thing.s
Heinz Kohut Self Psychology Basic Concepts:-
1- Empathicattunement


3-The Grandiose Self


a profound intellectual understanding of the world of another, a way ofknowing. To understand from within the experience of another


· the self structuringthat takes place when we are forced by circumstances to meet our own needs.

TheGrandiose Self
· Forms the core ofidentity and individuality. The self that wants to feel special and full of wellbeing.The repository of a natural healthy exhibitionism.
Search for purpose, meaning, and connection between self, others, theuniverse, and ultimate reality; both religious and non-religious expressions
A systematic set of beliefs,practices, and traditions experienced within a particular social institutionover time
Problem focused coping
Confrontation and problem solving

•Changesthe situation by acting on the environment

Emotion focused coping
Distance escape or avoidance

•Changeseither the way the stressful situation is attended to – by vigilance oravoidance – or the meaning to oneself of what is happening