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152 Cards in this Set

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All of the following are scientific principles that underlie scientific Inquiry EXCEPT:

Natural selection

WHich is wrong about scientific theories?

Firmly established and cannot be refuted

The scientific method includes all of the following except

a testable theory

Scientific theory:

General explanation for a natural phenomenon

All of the following are features of the scientific method except

supernatral causes

Suppose you are testing a treatment for aids patients and find that 75% respond very well whereas 25% show no improvement or decline in health you should

Discontinue experimentation

Alexander fleming observed a colony of mold that inhibited the growth of nearby bacteria, which of the following was his hypothesis

Mold produced substance that killed nearby bacteria

Which is a correct sequence of increasing organization

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system

Francesco redi designed an experiment to test the notion of spontaneous generation. He left the first jar of meat open to the air and the second jar covered, what's the first jar called

control

A good experiment should include as many variable at the same time

False

What changes in every rate of evolution

Genetic makeup

Mutation is essential for

Natural selection

An organism's ability to maintain its internal stability while external environment changes

homeostatsis

The main difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is

how they obatin energy

A substance with specific properties that cannot be broken down or converted into different substances is called

element

Polar covalent bonds form when

Electrons are shared unequally

A single covalent bond represents the sharing of how many electrons

3

A hydrogen bond forms between two water molecules forms because water is

polar

How do buffers work

Accept and release hydrogen

What type of bond is disrupted in aquatic solutions

ionic

Which of the following represents a molecule characterised by polar covalent bonding

h20

An atom's nucleus is composed of

protons and neutrons

A substance with specific properties that cannot be broken down or converted into another:

element

The atomic number of an atom can be described as:

The number of protons in the nucleus

For an atom to achieve maximum stability and become chemically inert, what must happen?

its outermost energy level must be filled

The formation of ions involves the:

gain or loss of electrons

The formation of sodium chloride is the result of:

Attraction between opposite charges

Most biological molecules are formed by:

covanlent bonds

Scientists recommend a diet rich in antioxidants. WHat happens at the atomic level to explain this recommendation?

ANtioxidants stop the chain reaction of cellular damage caused by free radicals

WHat best explains why a particular atom may not form compounds readily

The atom’s outermost energy levels are completely full


What does H-O-H represent?

a molecule of water

Polar covalent bonds form when:

Electrons are shared unequally between atoms

What represents a molecule characterized by polar covalent bonding:

h20

The hydrogen bond between two water molecules forms because water is:

polar

What is an accurate description of water molecules:

slightly charged and polar

What is an example of hydrogen bonding?

The bond between O of the one water molecule and H of the second

What best explains the attraction of water molecules to each other?

hydrogen bond

What is not a feature of prokaryotic cells

a nuclear membrane

Phospholipids are

found in all cell membranes

All cells possess all of the following except

nuclear membrane

The phospholipids that make up the plasma membrane have _____ heads and _____ tails

Hydrophilic; hydrophobic

What primarily determines the shape of animal cells that lack cell walls

Cytoskeleton

Which of the following does not possess a double membrane

ribosome

A nucleolus is

An area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made

The correct pathway of information flow in a cell

dna, rna protein

If all the lysosomes within the cell suddenly ruptured what would occur

The biological molecules in the cell would begin to degrade

The golgi apparatus package materials into ____ for transport and export

vesicles

The statement that accurately describes the interactions among er, ribosomes, and golgi bodies in exporting protein from the cell

Ribosomes manufacture proteins which travel through the er and are packaged by the golgi bodies for export

The formation of atp in the mitochondria which is an oxygen-dependant reaction is called

aerobic metabolism

Mitochondria and chloroplasts share all of the following except that they

Capture the energy of sunlight to meet metabolic demands

Which pair or organelles is responsible for supplying energy to eukaryotic cells

Chloroplasts and mitochondria

Which of the following is capable of converting light energy into chemical energy

chloroplasts

Which of the following cell structures is not found in a bacterial cell

er

The small circular loops of dna in prokaryotic cells that are separate from the main chromosome and may harbour genes are called

plasmids

Compounds in the biological membrane that form a barrier to the movement of materials across the membrane are

lipids

The ____ portion of the cell membrane is responsible for the isolating function of the membrane while the _____ portion regulates exchange and communication with the environment

lipid;protein

Phospholipids spontaneously form a bilayer in an aqueous solution, why do the heads of the phospholipids point out and the tails point towards one another

The tails are repelled by the aqueous environment

Recognition proteins are most important for

Distinguishing foreign cells from “self” cells

The main lipids found in the cell membrane are

phospholipids

Which groups have carrier and channel proteins

transport proteins

Which aren't found in membrane

cellulose

Which type of membrane protein connect cell to each other

attachment proteins

Net movement of molecules from high to low concentration

simple diffusion

For diffusion to occur there must be

gradient

In diffusion passive means

no energy required

Which occurs as enzyme is secreted from cell

exocytosis

Freshwater paramecium tends to _______ bc it is in a ______ environment

gain water; hypotonic

Gases O2 and CO2 enter and leave the plant cell by

Simple diffusion

Active transport requires

auqaporins

Process where WHITE blood cells engulf bacteria is

phagocytosis

If a frog cell is in a hypotonic solution it will

Swell via osmosis

Which requires adenosine triphosphate

active transport

Secretion of excess water via a vesicle of paramecium is an example of

exocytosis

Cytoplasm of a certain cell like a neuron has high concentration of K ions. How can K still enter cell

active trasnport

After a dye diffuses uniformly throughout a glass of water, the dye molecules are no longer moving

false

Light reactions produce

atp, nadh and Co2

Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from

h2o

During the process of photosynthesis solar energy is converted to

chemical energy

Hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membranes from the stroma by

active trasnport

In the C3 pathway where does the carbon come from to form glucose

Atmospheric CO2

What happens to CO2 when it moves into the stromas

It becomes a carb

The term cycle is used in the calvin cycle bcuz

The process begins and ends with RUBP

During photosynthesis when is CO2 utilized

during the calvin cycle only

The pigment that absorbs red and blue light and deflects green is

chlorophyll

Which statement is true regarding the light reactions

Without water the system would shut down

What stryctyral featyre of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air

stomata

Which seuence accurately describes the flow of electrons in photosynthesis

H20, photosystem 2, photosystem 1, NADPH

Suppose that you are experimenting for different types of light for your indoor green plants. Which of the following colors of light will be most effective

Red-blue

What kind of habitat does a C4 plant favor

hot dry

Which of the following occurs during the calvin cycle of photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide is converted to chemicals that can be used to make sugars

The energy in photosynthesis is

visible light

Carbon dioxide is required in the light reactions of photosynthesis

false

Which of the following statements is true about the light reactions

Photosystem 2 generates ATP, while photosystem 1 generates NADPH

What is produced in the electron transport system associated with photosystem 2

atp

All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis

atmospheric N2 levels

The majority of the leaf’s chloroplasts are found in mesophyll cells

true

Which process of photosynthesis is linked to the production of ATP

splitting up a water molecule

All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis except

oxygen

The role of water in photosynthesis is to

provide electrons

The replacement electrons for the reaction center of photosystem 2 come from

h20

The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed

during light reactions

The products of photosynthesis are

Glucose and oxygen

At the end of gylcolysis the original carbons of the glucose molecule form

two molecules of pyruvate

The main function of cleluar respiration is to produce:

atp

If no oxygen is available to the cell then the net ATP production of a single glucose moleculte is

two atp

Which events occurs in the fluid portion of the cytoplasm of a cell undergoing glucose metabolism

Glycolysis

During glycolysis what is the net gain of ATP molecules from one glucose

2

Where does the synthesis of pyruvate occur during glycolysis

Fluid portion of the cytoplasm

The end product of glycolysis is

2 pyruvate

During glycolysis two ATP molecules are spent in order to convert glucose to the highly reactive molecule

Fructose bisphosphate

The products of glycolysis are

Atp nadh and pyruvate

During which step of aerobic respiration in oxygen used

etc

Which of the follwing is an example of an electron-carrier molecule

nadh

The electron transport chain recieves electrons directly from

NADH and FADH2

Chemiosmosis in mitochondria directly results in the synthesis of

atp

What is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration

oxygen

In the matrix oxygen combines with _____ to form _____

Electrons and hydrogen ions; water

Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration because oxygen

Combines electrons and hydrogen ions to form water

The step in aerobic respiration that produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose

chemiosmosis

Which of the following most closely matches the correct order of the main events of cellular respiration

Glycolysis, kreb cycle, ETC, major ATP prodyction

The products of the kreb cycle includeThe products of the kreb cycle include

ATP, Carbon dioxide, and energy carriers

What makes the most ATP

ETC

When oxygen is present

Most animal cells utilize cellular respiration

Which of the following process requires oxygen

etc

After fermentation lactate is converted to pyruvate in the

liver

In human muscle cells fermentation produces

lactate

Carbon dioxide is a wate product of cellular respiration

true

Chemiosmosis links a a hydrogen ion gradient to the production of ATP

true

Glycolysis and the kreb cycle reactions occur in the mitochondria

false

Which does not happen during meosis

Production of diploid cells

Which of the following is a concequence of sexual reproduction as compared to asexual

There will be more diversity

Sister chromatids move away from eachother during

anaphase

The main function of meiosis 2 is to

Seperate sister chromatids during anaphase

Homologous chromosomes pair up during

meiosis 1



Which of the following is an advantage of sexual reproduction

Reshuffling of genes combines alleles in beneficial ways

Chromosome number is reduced in meiosis bcuz the process consists of

Two cell divisions and a single round of chrmosome replication

In a haploid daughter cell produced by meiosis the homologous chromosomes have

seperated

If an organism carries a mutation that prevents crossing over which of the following would happen

The gametes would lower in genetic diversity

During cell division all of the following all of the follwoing occur except

The hereditary information is identical in both parent and daughter cells

The dna in a chrmosome most resembles

spiral staircase

The repeating sequence of cells dividing growing and dividing again is called

the cell cycle

Each of your body cells:

Contains only the genetic information needed for that type of cell

A bacterial cell splitinto two new cells by a process called

Binary fission

How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic chrmosomes differ

Prokaryotic chromsomes are not contained in membrane bound organelles

In a typical human body cell how many sex chrmosomes are there

2

During which phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle does DNA and chrmosome replication occur

s phase of interphase

during which phase of eukaryotic cell cylce do growth and nutrient getting occur

The G1 phase of interphase

150. Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in mitotic cell division

prophase -metaphase-anaphase-telophase

During whichphase of mitosis do sister chromatids seperate from each other

anaphase

during which phase of mitosis do chrmosomes condesnse

prophase

Nuclear envelopes form during which phase of mitosis

telophase

In animal cells spindle microtubules originate from structures called

centrioles