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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


The genetic information in a cell is called the ________


Segments of DNA that code for functional products


The DNA of an organism, codes for all of its particular characteristics


Actual expressed properties from an organism's DNA, such as the ability to perform a certain chemical reaction

Genetic code

Set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted to the amino acid sequence of a protein


When the ultimate molecule for which a gene codes has been produced, the gene is _________


This represents potential properties, but not the properties themselves, in an organism

Enztmatic; structural

In microbes, most proteins are either ________ or ________

Constitutive genes

Genes that are transcribed at a relatively constant level regardless of cell environmental conditions

Epigenetic control

The process by which eukaryotic and bacterial cells turn genes off by methylating certain nucleotides before they are passed to offspring


An agent such as radiation or chemical substance that causes genetic mutations


Type of mutagen that causes cancer in animals

Genetic recombination

Refers to the exchange of genes between two molecules to form new combinations of genes on a chromosome

Vertical gene transfer

This occurs when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring

Horizontal gene transfer

Bacteria passing genes to others of the same generation

Recombinant cell

The recipient cell that incorporates donor DNA into its own DNA

Bacteriophage or phage

In the process of transduction, a virus that infects bacteria


A mechanism of genetic transfer between bacteria, in which bacterial DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus


Self-replicating, gene-containing, circular pieces of DNA about 1-5% the size of a bacterial chromosome


Small segments of DNA that can move from one region of a DNA molecule to another


The use of microorganisms cells or cell components to make a product

Recombinant DNA technology

The insertion, deletion, or modification of genes, sometimes called genetic engineering

Reverse transcriptase

An enzyme used to synthesize complementary DNA from an mRNA template; used to produce artificial genes that contain only exons

Complementary DNA

Synthetic DNA in which the sequence of bases is complementary to that of a given example of DNA

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

A difference in homologous DNA sequences that can be detected by the presence of fragments of different lengths after digestion of the DNA samples in with specific restriction endonucleases


Because each new DNA molecule contains an original and new strand, the process is __________


Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork

DNA Ligase

Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands; okazaki fragments and new segments in excision repair

DNA Polymerase

Synthesizes DNA; proofreads and repairs DNA


Cut DNA Backbone in a strand of DNA; facilitate repair and insertions


Cut DNA from an exposed end of DNA; facilitate repair


Unwinds double-stranded DNA


Ed's methyl group to selected bases in newly-made DNA


Uses visible light energy to separate uv-induced pyrimidine dimers


An RNA polymerase that makes RNA primers from a DNA template


RNA enzyme that removes introns and splices exons together

RNA polymerase

Copies RNA from a DNA template


RNA-protein complex that removes introns and splices exons together


Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork; separates DNA circles at the end of DNA replication


Cuts DNA backbone, leaving single stranded sticky ends

DNA ligase

Joins the discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand in DNA replication

DNA Polymerase

Digests RNA primer and replaces it with DNA

DNA Polymerase

__________ is responsible for proofreading capability of DNA during replication


Genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary base sequence of RNA


The use of information encoded in RNA to synthesize specific proteins

(Ribosomal) rRNA

Forms an integral part of ribosomes, the cellular machinery for protein synthesis.

Messenger RNA

Carries the coded information for making specific proteins from DNA to ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized


Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at a site called the ________


RNA synthesis continues until RNA polymerase reaches a site on the DNA called the _________


Decoding the language of nucleic acids and converting it into the language of proteins


Groups of three nucleotides such as AUG GGC or AAA, which are the language of messenger RNA

Amino acid

Each codon codes for a specific ________

Stop codons


Start codons


Transfer RNA

________ molecules both recognize the specific codons, and transport the required amino acids


Each TRNA molecule has a sequence of three bases that is complementary to a codon, called a _______. In this way, a TRNA molecule can base pair with its associated codon.

Nucleus; cytoplasm or RER

In eukaryotic cells, transcription occurs in the _________, and translation occurs in the _________


The regions of DNA that are expressed in eukaryotic genes


The intervening regions of DNA that do not encode protein

Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins

Remove the introns and splice the exons together in eukaryotic cells


Gene responsible for recombination in prokaryotes (bacteria)


Gene responsible for recombination in eukaryotes