Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Genome

The genetic information in a cell is called the ________

Genes

Segments of DNA that code for functional products

Genotype

The DNA of an organism, codes for all of its particular characteristics

Phenotype

Actual expressed properties from an organism's DNA, such as the ability to perform a certain chemical reaction

Genetic code

Set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted to the amino acid sequence of a protein

Expressed

When the ultimate molecule for which a gene codes has been produced, the gene is _________

Genotype

This represents potential properties, but not the properties themselves, in an organism

Enztmatic; structural

In microbes, most proteins are either ________ or ________

Constitutive genes

Genes that are transcribed at a relatively constant level regardless of cell environmental conditions

Epigenetic control

The process by which eukaryotic and bacterial cells turn genes off by methylating certain nucleotides before they are passed to offspring

Mutagen

An agent such as radiation or chemical substance that causes genetic mutations

Carcinogens

Type of mutagen that causes cancer in animals

Genetic recombination

Refers to the exchange of genes between two molecules to form new combinations of genes on a chromosome

Vertical gene transfer

This occurs when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring

Horizontal gene transfer

Bacteria passing genes to others of the same generation

Recombinant cell

The recipient cell that incorporates donor DNA into its own DNA

Bacteriophage or phage

In the process of transduction, a virus that infects bacteria

Transduction

A mechanism of genetic transfer between bacteria, in which bacterial DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus

Plasmid

Self-replicating, gene-containing, circular pieces of DNA about 1-5% the size of a bacterial chromosome

Transposons

Small segments of DNA that can move from one region of a DNA molecule to another

Biotechnology

The use of microorganisms cells or cell components to make a product

Recombinant DNA technology

The insertion, deletion, or modification of genes, sometimes called genetic engineering

Reverse transcriptase

An enzyme used to synthesize complementary DNA from an mRNA template; used to produce artificial genes that contain only exons

Complementary DNA

Synthetic DNA in which the sequence of bases is complementary to that of a given example of DNA

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

A difference in homologous DNA sequences that can be detected by the presence of fragments of different lengths after digestion of the DNA samples in with specific restriction endonucleases

Semiconservative

Because each new DNA molecule contains an original and new strand, the process is __________

Gyrase

Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork

DNA Ligase

Makes covalent bonds to join DNA strands; okazaki fragments and new segments in excision repair

DNA Polymerase

Synthesizes DNA; proofreads and repairs DNA

Endonucleases

Cut DNA Backbone in a strand of DNA; facilitate repair and insertions

Exonucleases

Cut DNA from an exposed end of DNA; facilitate repair

Helicase

Unwinds double-stranded DNA

Methylase

Ed's methyl group to selected bases in newly-made DNA

Photolyase

Uses visible light energy to separate uv-induced pyrimidine dimers

Primase

An RNA polymerase that makes RNA primers from a DNA template

Ribozyme

RNA enzyme that removes introns and splices exons together

RNA polymerase

Copies RNA from a DNA template

snRNP

RNA-protein complex that removes introns and splices exons together

Topoisomerase

Relaxes supercoiling ahead of the replication fork; separates DNA circles at the end of DNA replication

Transposase

Cuts DNA backbone, leaving single stranded sticky ends

DNA ligase

Joins the discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand in DNA replication

DNA Polymerase

Digests RNA primer and replaces it with DNA

DNA Polymerase

__________ is responsible for proofreading capability of DNA during replication

Transcription

Genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary base sequence of RNA

Translation

The use of information encoded in RNA to synthesize specific proteins

(Ribosomal) rRNA

Forms an integral part of ribosomes, the cellular machinery for protein synthesis.

Messenger RNA

Carries the coded information for making specific proteins from DNA to ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized

Promoter

Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at a site called the ________

Terminator

RNA synthesis continues until RNA polymerase reaches a site on the DNA called the _________

Translation

Decoding the language of nucleic acids and converting it into the language of proteins

Codons

Groups of three nucleotides such as AUG GGC or AAA, which are the language of messenger RNA

Amino acid

Each codon codes for a specific ________

Stop codons

UAA; UAG; UGA

Start codons

AUG

Transfer RNA

________ molecules both recognize the specific codons, and transport the required amino acids

Anticodon

Each TRNA molecule has a sequence of three bases that is complementary to a codon, called a _______. In this way, a TRNA molecule can base pair with its associated codon.

Nucleus; cytoplasm or RER

In eukaryotic cells, transcription occurs in the _________, and translation occurs in the _________

Exons

The regions of DNA that are expressed in eukaryotic genes

Introns

The intervening regions of DNA that do not encode protein

Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins

Remove the introns and splice the exons together in eukaryotic cells

RecA

Gene responsible for recombination in prokaryotes (bacteria)

RAD51

Gene responsible for recombination in eukaryotes