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34 Cards in this Set

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Carnassial Teeth

Slice & tear flesh, in hyaenas they are used to crush bone.

Carnivore Jaw Structure

Large Temporal Muscle & Coronoid process w/ Small Masseter, jaw function up & down only.

Mandibular Fossa

Articulation of the jaw which provides the direction the jaw can move.

Mandibular Fossa Types

C-Shaped for unidirectional force or flat to allow for chewing.

Rodent Jaw Structure

Minimized Temporal Muscle, Coronoid process absent & enlarged Masseter for chewing. Jaw can move side-to-side.

Sciuromorphic Jaw

Large flat muscle attachment surfaces & zygomatic plate. (Squirrels)

Myomorphic Jaw

Masseter passes through enlarged infraorbital foramen & inserts onto the rostrum. (Mice)

Hystricomorphic Jaw

Known for massive infraorbital foramen. (porcupines)

Simple mandible, masseter insertion below lower cheek teeth, & angular process line with the jaw

Sciurognathous Lower Jaw

Flanged/Ridged mandible, insertion below & behind lower cheek teeth, deflected angular process

HystricognathousLower Jaw

Defining Primate Features

Nails, opposable digits, forward facing eyes, reduced muzzle, increased brain size,

Arboreal Theory

Features of a primate are geared towards moving through trees and picking up objects with their hands.

Strepsirini defining features

post-orbital bar, rhinarium & peccinate lower incisors.

Haplorhini defining features

post-orbital plate, spatulate incisors,simple nostrils w/ rounded cranium.

General Ungulate Features

hooves, calcanium non-articulated with the fibula, cursorial, hypsodont teeth.

Perissodactyl digestion

hind gut fermenters w/ enlarged cecum.

Non-ruminant Artiodactyls

Suidae & Tassiuridae

Artiodactyl Digestion

Ruminant (4 chambered) & Simple (Omnivore)

Perissodactyl Foot structure

odd toed (1 or 3) enlarged 3rd digit which is the weight bearing axis

Artiodactyl Foot structure

even toed (2 or 4) fused 3rd & 4th digits which is the weight bearing axis

Artiodactyl & Perissodactyl locomotion

cursorial, on the tips of their toes (digitigrade)


Not permanent, shed yearly, covered in velvet


Permanent, bony core covered in keratinized sheath

False horns

Ossicones attached to the skull of the giraffe, covered by skin.

Lagomorph dentition

Possess 2 pair of upper incisors, teeth completely enameled, ALL teeth are ever growing.

Rodent dentition

Single pair of upper and lower incisors, enamel only on the exterior, only incisors are ever growing.

Cetacean Modifications

fusiform body, absent hind limbs, flippers, fluke & fins, no external pinnae, elongated skulls with nostril(s) on the top.

Cetacean Thermoregulation Adaptations

Low Surface Area:Volume ratio, Blubber & counter-current circulation.

Cetacean Pressure Adaptations

Dense non-compressible bones, semi-rigid lungs capable of collapsing, & cell difference.


Whale with a tube throat (Balaenopteridae)


Keratin plates that continuously grow with frayed elements which overlap and filter small plankton/nekton from water.


Produced with nasal sacs & at a lower frequency than bats, specialized tympanic bones.

Passes through the melon & returns through the lower jaw - only in odontocetes.


expansion of throat grooves allows the whale to actively suck in large portions of water for food.


passively swimming through water and filtering all that pass through the baleen plates.