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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What publication covers map reading and land navigation

TC 3-25.26

What are the basic colors of a map, and what does each color represent?
* Black - Indicates cultural (man-made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels.
* Red-Brown - The colors red and brown are combined to identify cultural features, all relief features, non-surveyed spot elevations, and elevation, such as contour lines on red-light readable maps.
* Blue - Identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage.
* Green - Identifies vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards, and vineyards.
* Brown - Identifies all relief features and elevation, such as contours on older edition maps, and cultivated land on red-light readable maps.
* Red - Classifies cultural features, such as populated areas, main roads, and boundaries, on older maps.
* Other - Occasionally other colors may be used to show special information. These are indicated in the marginal information as a rule.
What are military symbols?
Figures used to represent types of military organizations, installations, and activities
Where is the Legend of the map found?
Lower left margin
What are contour lines?
Imaginary lines on the ground connecting equal elevation, they represent high and low ground elevation.
What are 3 types of contour lines?
1. Index
2. Intermediate
3. Supplementary
How many Mils are in one Degree?
17.7 mils
How many Norths are there on a military map?

1. True north
2. Magnetic north
3. Grid north
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a hill?
A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a saddle?
A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a valley?
Contour lines forming a valley are either U-shaped or V-shaped.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a Ridge?
Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a depression?
Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a draw?
The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a spur?
Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a cliff?
Cliffs are also shown by contour lines very close together and, in some instances, touching each other.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a cut?
This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail.
What shape are the contour lines that indicate a fill?
This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground. If the map scale permits, the length of the fill tick marks are drawn to scale and extend from the base line of the fill symbol.
What must be done to a map before it can be used?
It must be oriented.
What are 5 major terrain features found on a map?
1. Hill
2. Ridge
3. Valley
4. Saddle
5. Depression
What are the 3 minor terrain features found on a military map?
1. Draw
2. Spur
3. Cliff
What are the 2 supplementary terrain features found on a military map?
1. Cut
2. Fill
What is a map?
A map is a graphic representation of a portion of the earth’s surface drawn to scale, as seen from above.
What is an azimuth?
A horizontal angle, measured in a clockwise manner from a north base line, expressing direction.
What is vertical distance?
The distance between the highest and lowest points measured.
What is a contour interval?
The vertical distance between adjacent contour lines on a map.
What is the distance between grid lines on a combat map?
1 kilometer or 1000 meters
How many mils are there in a circle?
6400 mils in 360 degrees
Which north is used when using a military map?
Magnetic north when using a compass, and grid north when using the map
How would you hold a lensatic compass?
Away from metal (weapons, electrical devices), level and firm
Name two ways to hold a compass?
1. Compass-to-Cheek Method
2. Center-Hold Method
Are topographic symbols drawn to scale?
What do topographic symbols represent?
Man-made and natural features
In military symbols, what colors are used for a map overlay and what do they represent?
* Blue- Friendly forces
* Red-Enemy forces
* Black- boundaries
* Yellow-contaminated area both friendly and enemy
* Green- engineer obstacles, both friendly and enemy
What is Back Azimuth?
The opposite direction of an azimuth.
How do you figure out a back azimuth?
To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth, add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less; subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or more
What is a declination diagram?
Shows the angular relationship between the magnetic north, grid north and true north
What is the general rule for reading military grid coordinates?
Right and UP
How many sights does a compass have?
What is a benchmark?
A man-made marker showing points of elevation
What are parallels of latitude?
Measured distances going north or south of the equator
What is an aerial photograph?
An aerial photograph is any photograph taken from an airborne vehicle (aircraft, drones, balloons, satellites, and so forth)
What does UTM stand for?
Universal Transverse Mercator
The lensatic compass has a bezel ring; each bezel ring click is equal to how many degrees?
How many times would the bezel ring click if it were fully rotated?
Large cities on a map are represented by what color?
Name two ways to orient a map?
Use a compass and terrain association
What is the Field Manual for Operational Terms and Graphics?
FM 1-02
The arrow on a compass always points what direction?
Magnetic north
What does the term FLOT mean?
Forward Line Of Troops
What is longitude?
Imaginary lines that run north to south originating in Greenwich, England and measured in degrees
What s a topographic map?
Portrays terrain and land forms in a measurable way as well as horizontal features of the positions represented
What is a small-scale map?
Those maps with scales of 1:1,000,000 and smaller are used for general planning and for strategic studies. The standard small-scale map is 1:1,000,000. This map covers a very large land area at the expense of detail.
What is a medium-scale map?
Those maps with scales larger than 1:1,000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000 are used for operational planning. They contain a moderate amount of detail, but terrain analysis is best done with the large-scale maps described below. The standard medium-scale map is 1:250,000. Medium scale maps of 1:100,000 are also frequently encountered.
What is a large-scale map?
Those maps with scales of 1:75,000 and larger are used for tactical, administrative, and logistical planning. These are the maps that you as a soldier or junior leader are most likely to encounter. The standard large-scale map is 1:50,000; however, many areas have been mapped at a scale of 1:25,000.
What does the term intersection mean?
Finding the location of an unknown point by sighting two or more known points
Why is a map so important?
When used correctly, a map can give you accurate distances, locations and heights, best routes key terrain features and cover and concealment information
What does the term resection mean?
Resection is the method of locating one’s position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well-defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map.
If you find a symbol on a map that is unknown to you, where would you look?
The marginal data, located on the outside lower portion of the map
How many scales are there on a compass, what are they?
There are two;

1. Degrees
2. Mils
What are the 4 quadrants on a map?
1. Northeast
2. Southeast
3. Northwest
4. Southwest
What are the three elements for a land navigation process known as Dead Reckoning?
1. Known starting point
2. Known distance
3. Known azimuth
What is the feature that makes the lensatic compass work well at night?
The dials and needles are luminous
What is the name of the map system that the U.S. uses?
On a lensatic compass there are two rings, an outer black ring and an inner red ring, what are they used for?
The inner red ring is used to find degrees, and the outer black ring is used to find mils
What is a contour level?
It is the vertical distance between contour lines. The amount of the contour level is located in the Marginal Information on the map.
The border line around the edge of the map is called the what?
Neat Line
Name the different slopes found on a map.
1. Gentle
2. Steep
3. Concave
4. Convex
You must find at least how many known locations on a map and the actual ground in order to plot your location accurately?
At least 2
What are the three main map sizes?
1. Small
2. Medium
3. Large
What are two methods of measuring an azimuth?
Compass and a protractor
How close will an eight-digit grid get you to your point?
10 meters
How close will a six-digit grid coordinate get you to your point?
100 meters

What would you use on a map to measure actual ground distance?

The bar scale

What does a map provide?

A: information on the existence, the location of, and the distance between ground features, such as populated places and routes of travel and communication; It also indicates variations in terrain, heights of natural features, and the extent of vegetation cover

Who is responsible for securing maps for the unit?


A: The G2/S2 sectio

What should you do with a map that is in danger of being captured?

A: Destroy it

How many different types of maps are there?


How many different types of maps are there?

1. Planimetric Map

2. Topographic Map

3. Photomap

4. Joint Operations Graphics

5. Photomosaic

6. Terrain Model

7. Military City Map

8. Special Maps

What should you use if Military Maps are not available?

A: Substitute maps

How many types of Substitute maps are there?


What are the Seven different types of Substitute Maps?

A: 1. Foreign Maps

2. Atlases

3. Geographic Maps

4. Tourist Road Maps

5. City/Utility Maps

6. Field Sketches

7. Aerial Photographs

Where will you find the Sheet Name of a Map?

A: The sheet name is found in bold print at the center of the top and in the lower left area of the map margin

Where will you find the Sheet Number of a Map?

A: The sheet number is found in bold print in both the upper right and lower left areas of the margin, and in the center box of the adjoining sheets diagram, which is found in the lower right margin

Where will you find the Series Name of a Map?

A: The map series name is found in the same bold print as the sheet number in the upper left corner of the margin

Where will you find the Scale of a Map and what does it represent?

A: The scale is found both in the upper left margin after the series name, and in the center of the lower margin and it is a representative fraction that gives the ratio of a map distance to the corresponding distance on the earth's surface

Where will you find the Series Number of a Map?

A: The series number is found in both the upper right margin and the lower left margin

Where will you find the Bar Scales of a Map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and They are rulers used to convert map distance to ground distance. Maps have three or more bar scales, each in a different unit of measure

What are the units of measurement are used for Direction?

A: 1. Degree. The most common unit of measure is the degree

2. Mil. Another unit of measure, the mil (abbreviated ), is used mainly in artillery, tank, and mortar gunnery

3. Grad. The grad is a metric unit of measure found on some foreign maps

What are the ways to determine your Location on a Map?

A: 1. Intersection

2. Resection

3. Modified resection

How do you Determine your location using Intersection when using the map and compass method?

A: (1) Orient the map using the compass.

(2) Locate and mark your position on the map,

(3) Determine the magnetic azimuth to the unknown position using the compass.

(4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to grid azimuth.

(5) Draw a line on the map from your position on this grid azimuth.

(6) Move to a second known point and repeat steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

(7) The location of the unknown position is where the lines cross on the map. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.

How do you Determine your location using Intersection when straight edge method is used when a compass is not available?


A: (1) Orient the map on a flat surface by the terrain association method.

(2) Locate and mark your position on the map.

(3) Lay a straight edge on the map with one end at the user’s position (A) as a pivot point; then, rotate the straightedge until the unkown point is sighted along the edge.

(4) Draw a line along the straight edge

(5) Repeat the above steps at position (B) and check for accuracy.

(6) The intersection of the lines on the map is the location of the unknown point (C). Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accurac

What are the four different types of compasses used for measuring direction?

A: 1. The lensatic compass

2. The artillery M2 compass

3. The wrist/pocket compass

4. A protractor

How do you use the Centerhold Technique?


A: First, open the compass to its fullest so that the cover forms a straightedge with the base. Move the lens (rear sight) to the rearmost position, allowing the dial to float freely. Next, place your thumb through the thumb loop, form a steady base with your third and fourth fingers, and extend your index finger along

the side of the compass. Place the thumb of the other hand between the lens (rear sight) and the bezel ring; extend the index finger along the remaining
side of the compass, and the remaining fingers around the fingers of the other hand. Pull your elbows firmly into your sides; this will place the compass between your chin and your bel

How do you use the Compass-to-Cheek Technique?

A: Fold the cover of the compass containing the sighting wire to a vertical position; then fold the rear sight slightly forward. Look through the rear-sight slot and align the frontsight hairline with the desired object in the distance. Then glance down at the dial through the eye lens to read the azimuth