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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the three components of risk assessment.
a. potential for failure
b. environment that may contribute to failure
c. potential target
By definition, if there is no ____________, a tree cannot pose a risk.
target
When performing a tree assessment, it is important to develop and stick to a ____________ process.
systematic
For structural strength, branches should be ___________ in diameter than their parent limbs or trunk.
smaller
____________ ____________ fungi primarily decay the lignin within and between cell walls in the wood.
white rot
Codominant stems often have _____________ _________ within the branch union, making them structurally less stable.
included bark
Trees that have grown in dense shade such as a forest tend to have long, straight stems with little _______________.
taper
Trees often produce ____________ __________, providing more stability to compensate for lean.
reaction wood
Brown rot fungi primarily decay the ______________, leaving behind the stiff lignin an thereby reducing the bending strength of the tree.
cellulose
Decay located in the lower trunk and/or base of the tree is referred to as ____________ _______.
basal rot (butt rot)
In recent years, a number of more advanced __________ __________ ___________ have been developed to help arborists determine the presence and extent of decay inside trees.
decay detection devices
True/False---A tree may appear to be solid and structurally sound, and may have a thick, green canopy, yet can have significant decay inside.
true
List five indicators of decay in a tree.
a. open wounds or cavities
b. fruiting bodies; mushrooms, conks
c. cracked or loosened bark
d. certain insects
e. birds, bees, other animals
If decay is suspected at the root flare or in the major support roots, a root collar _____________ may be necessary to ascertain the extent.
excavation
Sometimes there are management options short of tree removal to abate the risk of failure. ________________ is the general term given to the process of reducing the risk potential.
mitigation
True/False---Current research indicates that filling cavities may do more harm than good because decay can develop in the interface between filler and tree.
true
List four potential options for mitigating tree risk.
a. removal of the tree or limb(s)
b. pruning
c. cabling
d. bracing
____________ occurs when the arborist has an obligation or responsibility with regard to the tree (duty) but fails to act reasonably in providing the service (breach of duty), and injury or damage occurs (harm) because of the arborist's action(s) or lack of action (causality).
negligence
The gauge against which acts are judged as reasonable is the ____________ _____ _________.
standard of care
True/False---Individuals may not escape liability for damages resulting from a fallen tree or branch if the defect that cause the failure was known of or should have been known of.
true
A necessary component in the existence of tree risk is
a. a tree with a potential for failure
b. an environment that may contribute to failure
c. a person or object that may be injured or damaged
d. all of the above
d
Which type of decay primarily affects the lignin within and between cell walls in the wood, reducing the tree's compressive strength?
a. brown rot
b. white rot
c. soft rot
d. sapwood rot
b
Following construction, forest trees on the edge of remaining stands are prone to failure due to
a. losing the protection of the trees that used to surround them
b. less trunk stability and poor taper
c. increased exposure to the weather elements
d. all of the above
d
Trees that lean because of ground failure or root injury
a. have a high potential to fail
b. are less of a risk than those that lean due to phototropism
c. are not a threat unless located at the edge of a wooded area
d. are a risk only if they begin to grow in compensation for the lean
a
Arborists, as trained professionals in tree care,
a. are required to have formal training in risk assessment
b. must be qualified to perform a root crown inspection
c. will be held to a higher standard of care than general citizens
d. all of the above
c