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61 Cards in this Set

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Pest Control Advisor (P.C.A.)

In California, a person licensed to recommend the agricultural use of a pest control product or technique.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Agency that regulates pesticide registration, sale, and use at the federal level through laws in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations.

calibrate

to standardize or correct the measuring devices in instruments; to adjust the nozzles on a spray rig properly

Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR)

Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR)

State Lead Agency for developing and implementing a statewide pesticide regulatory program.

Regulates pesticide sales and use to protect public health and the environment from known adverse effects possible with the legal use of pesticides.

County Agricultural Commissioner (CAC)

Certifies private pesticide applicators and conducts local enforcement of pesticide use laws and regs in agricultural, residential, non-agricultural and structural pest control settings.

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

the federal law that governs all aspects of agricultural pesticide use in the U.S.

UC IPM Online

UC Davis statewide IPM program; DPR contracts with UC IPM to develop pesticide applicator certification and training study guides and programs, exam questions, pest control guidelines, and other pest control info.

eradication

total elimination of a pest from a designated area.

quarantine

a period of enforced isolation that is required to prevent entry of undesirable organisms

pesticide

any substance or mixture intended for preventing, destroying, killing, or mitigating problems caused by any insects, rodents, weeds, nematodes, fungi or other pests, as well as any other substance or mixture intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, or desiccant

insecticide

a pesticide used to control insects

herbicide

a pesticide used to control weeds

fungicide

a pesticide used to control fungi

rodenticide

a pesticide used to control rodents

pest

an organism that interferes with the availability, quality, or value of a managed resource

natural selection

the process whereby individuals carrying certain alternative inherited traits survive and reproduce more successfully under stressful conditions, thus increasing the predominance of their genetic traits in the overall population in succeeding generations.

phenotype

physical attributes of an individual organism, based on the interaction between the organism's genotype and environmental conditions.

genotype

genetic constitution of an organism as determined by the determined by the set of genes it carries

alternate host

plant that supports the survival of a pest when its main host, usually a crop plant, is not available

cohort

a group of individuals of the same species that are the same age

density-independent factors

factors that affect population growth similarly regardless of population density; include disturbances such as floods, drought, fire, other unpredictable environmental conditions, and most pest control actions

density-dependent factors

factors that have a different effect on population growth when populations are high than when they are low

epidemic

a rapidly spreading outbreak of a disease



epi "among" + dēmos "people"

ecology

the study of interrelationships between organisms and their surrounding environment

ecotype

a locally adapted species population

ecotone

a transitional zone between communities

ecosystem

a community of organisms in an area and their non-living environment

agroecosystem

an ecosystem managed for agricultural purposes; predominantly monoculture

organic matter

any material derived from living organisms; in the soil, includes decaying plant, microbial, and animal matter

degree-day

the amount of heat that accumulates over a 24 hour period when the average temperature is 1 degree above the lower developmental threshold of an organism

trophic structure

the series of links in a food web that describes the transfer of energy from one nutritional level to the next



Greek trophikos, from trophe "nourishment"

saprophyte

an organism that derives its nourishment from decaying organic matter



Greek sapros "putrid" + phyton "plant"

monoculture

a planting system where one crop species is grown per field; predominant system utilized for crops in the U.S.

intercropping

growing more than one crop in a field at the same time

limiting factors

factors required for an organism's growth and survival. Short supply or overabundance of any one of these factors will hinder growth and development, and reproduction, resulting in reduced growth or reproduction, stress, or death

equilibrium position

the mean level around which a species' characteristic population fluctuates

r strategists

species that have high rates of reproduction and growth and are able to colonize new areas rapidly

k strategists

species that demonstrate good competitive abilities when competition for resources is high

biodiversity

the number of different species of plants, animals and microorganisms within an ecosystem

abiotic

nonliving factors such as wind, water, temperature and minerals

pest management

any activity directed at controlling unwanted organisms or avoiding their damage; can involve methods that prevent, suppress, or eradicate pest organisms

integrated pest management

a sustainable approach to long-term pest management by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks.

pest

any organism...



that interferes with the availability, quality, or value of a managed resource



that interferes with the activities and desires of humans

key pest

a pest that, unless controlled, causes major damage to a crop on a regular basis

occasional pest

pest that becomes intolerable only irregularly, often due to climate, environmental influences, or as a result of human activities

secondary pest

pest that results from actions taken to control a key pest

synthetic organic pesticides

manufactured pesticides produced from petroleum and containing largely carbon and hydrogen atoms in their basic structure

pesticide resistance

the genetically acquired ability of an organism to survive a pesticide application at doses that once killed most individuals of the species

cross resistance

resistance to multiple pesticides with the same mode of action after being introduced to only one

tolerable injury level/economic injury level

the pest density (or damage level) at which the cost of pest control is less than the cost of the damage the pest infestation causes economic damage to the crop

aesthetic injury level

the level of pest damage or pest populations the general public will tolerate on an ornamental plant

treatment/economic/action threshold

the level of pest population at which a pesticide or other control method is needed to prevent eventual economic injury to the crop

host plant resistance/tolerance

the ability of a plant cultivar to ward off or resist attack by pests that damage other cultivars of the same species

fallowing

leaving a field empty for a season or part of a season

biological control

any activity of one species that reduces the adverse effects of another species

cultural control

the modification of normal crop or landscape management practices decrease pest establishment, reproduction, dispersal, survival or damage

mechanical and physical control

control methods specifically taken to kill the pest directly or to indirectly make the environment unsuitable for pest entry, dispersal, survival or reproduction.



Examples are: soil solarization, screens, cultivation via burying plant litter that may harbor overwintering insects or pathogen inoculum, mechanical vertebrate traps, sticky traps for insects

chemical control

the use of pesticides to control a pest

mode of action

the mechanism by which a pesticide kills or controls a target organism

persistence

amount of time it takes for a pesticide to degrade, measured in terms of half-life

field monitoring

regularly going into the field, orchard, or landscape to systematically check for pests or damage symptoms