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78 Cards in this Set

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mesopelagic fish adaptations

well-developed teeth


large mouths


highly sensitive eyes


photophores

Photophores used for

lures


species recognition


possibly lanterns

Vertical migration

when deeper living fish migrate up at night for food or other necessities.


stimulated by daily or seasonal changes in light intensity

Buoyancy

Living and moving in three dimensions above the seafloorcreates buoyancy problems for pelagic animals. Stored fats and oils or internal gas-filled flotation organs arecommon buoyancy devices used by pelagic marine animals.

Swim bladders that are attached to esophagus as adult.

physostomous

Swim bladders that are not attached to esophagus as adult (disappear).

physoclistous

Rete mirabile

The gas gland and associated countercurrent network of blood vessels called the rete mirabile are capable of concentrating gases from the blood into their swim bladders at high pressures

How do animals orient themselves in the sea

biological clocks

Biological clocks can be reset by

day length, temperature, food availability

Abyssal plains

deep, dark, mostly featureless except for


ridges, rises, and trenches

Oozes

characterized by chemical comp.


siliceous and calcareous

Deep floor oxygen

comes from surface


5ppm


comes from diffusion

Gigantism

surprisingly common in deep sea

O2 minimum zone

gradual increase below

Food for deep sea organisms that come from the surface are tightly coupled with

primary productivity at the surface


spring-summer at surface


summer-fall in deep sea

Metabolic rates _____ in the deep sea to account for ________

decrease, high variability of food

density and biomass at surface vs deep sea

greater at surface

species diversity at surface vs deep sea

equal or may even be greater in deep sea

Why are nets not used to sample deep sea organisms?

Most species are infaunal

Deposit feeders

infaunal - extracting nourishment from the sediment in much the same manner as earthworms.

Croppers

have merged the roles of predator and deposit feeder by preying heavily on populations of smaller deposit feeders and bacteria

Deep sea adaptations

Either very large or no eyes


large mouths


big teeth


photophores

Hydrothermal vent communities

Dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emerging from seafloor cracks is used as an energy source by chemosynthetic bacteria, the base of the food web in these areas

Larval dispersal - hydrothermal vents

drift with currents


hitchhikers


hop from carcass to carcass

What do you call a submerged volcano

atoll

name the order that reefs form

fringing, barrier reef, atoll

What are chemicals called that induce spawning in invertebrates?

pheromones

Neustonic

lives at air-sea interface

What phylum do siphonophoresbelong to?

cnidaria

Which organism is the most numerous and diverse of the meroplankton?

copopods

Measuring bathymetry

sounding - rope w/heavy weight


multi-beam echo sounders


sattelite measurements - can see large areas unaffected by surface conditions

Refractometer

measures salinity

hypersomatic

more salt - less water

isomatic

normal

hyposomatic

less salt - more water

Osmoconformer

stays in areas where salinity is similar

osmoregulator

can tolerate wide range of salinities

Neritic

bottom but shallow

nertic

area right above continental shelf

monera

simplest organisms, single celled, prokaryotic


ex - cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteris

Protista

single, multicelled w/nuclei


ameobas, microalgea, protists

Chromista

single and multicelled w/nucleus; once part or protista


ex: brown macroalgea

metabiosis

one benefits at death of another

phytoplankton groups

cyanobacteria


chryosphyta


dinophyta



cyanobacteria

obtain energy thru photosynthesis

chrysophyta

cocoliths, diatoms

dinophyta

dinoflagellates dominate warm water phytoplankton communities

Primary production equation

NPP = GPP - R

Things that affect primary production

dissolved co2


temp


sunlight/turbidity


depth


nutrients


salinity


pollution


ETC

Most common pigment

chlorophyll a

Standard chordate features

dorsal hollow nerve chord


stiffening notochord of cartilage


pharyngeal gill slits


post anal tail

All vertebrates have standard chordate features and

segmental ossification of the notochord


a musculature segmented into myomeres


closed circulatory system w/hemoglobin containing red blood cells

Agnatha

Jawless fish


characterized by lack of jaw, paired fins and scales

Chondrichthyes

Sharks, rays, chimaeras


salt glands used to osmoregulate


heterocercal caudal fin and placoid scales

Osteichthyes

bony fishes


polyganous


sequential hermaphrodites

Counter current flow

used by fish, blood flow and water flow are opposites

All marine bird/reptiles eliminate excess salts through

kidneys


specialized nasal glands

waters is greater than ____ times as dense and ______ times more viscous than air

800, 30

Diadromous

spends life in both fresh and marine waters

anadromous

most of life at sea, spawn in freahwater

ampullae of lorenzini

detects electomagnetic stimuli

lateral line

detects disturbances in the water

Marine mammals split into these three groups

carnivora


sirenia


cetacea

Apneustic breathing

breathing fast before going under water

collapsible lungs

force air away from alveoli to avoid bends and nitrogen narcosis

Types of estuaries

coastal plain


tectonic


bar-built


fjord

Coastal plain estuary

formed by flooded river mouth

Tectonic estuary

found along major fault lines

Bar-built estuary

when shallow lagoon/bay is protected from ocean by sand bar or barrier island

Fjord

U shaped valleys formed by glacial action

More than 90% of marine mammals are ______

benthic

Corals - phylum

cnidaria

Cenosarc (corals)

individuals connected

corallite

the cup the animal sits in

septum

supporting walls

columella

:P

Types (shapes) of corals

Folacious


free living


encrusting


columnar


platelike


branching


massive