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291 Cards in this Set

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style or styles of clothing and accessories worn at a particular time by a particular group of people
Fashion Industries
those engaged in manufacturing the materials and finished products used in the production of apparel and accessories for men, women, and children
Fashion Business
all the industries and services connected with fashion: design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, communications, publishing, and consulting
process includes diverse activities and promote products effectively so that they will sell easily
Fashion Merchandising
the planning required to have the right fashion-oriented merchandise at the right time, in the right place, in the right quantities, at the right prices, and with the right sales promotion for a specific targeted customer
the characteristic or distinctive appearance of a garment- the combination of features that makes it unique and different from other garments
High Fashion
A new style accepted by a limited number of fashion leaders who want to be the first to adopt changes and innovation in fashion.
Mass fashion (Volume fashion)
styles that are widely accepted
a particular or individual interpretation, version, or treatment of a style
Style number
identifies a product for manufacturing, ordering, and selling purposes
a prevailing opinion of what is and what is not attractive and appropriate for a given occasion
a style or design that satisfies a basic need and remains in general fashion acceptance for an extended period of time
a fashion that suddenly sweeps into popularity, affecting a limited part of the total population, and then quickly disappears
a general direction or movement
overall outline or contour
individual elements that give a silhouette its form or shape
the look and feel of material, woven, knit, or nonwoven
Fashion cycle
the rise, wide popularity, and then decline of a style
Stages of the Fashion Cycle
Introduction, Rise, Culmination, Decline, Obsolescence
Introduction Stage
Next new fashion that may be introduced by a producer in the form of a new style, color, or texture; higher priced merhcandise; small quantities
Rise Stage
new original design (or its adaptations) is accepted by an increasing number of customers`
during the rise stage of a new original design, many retailers offer line-for-line copies; look exactly like the original except that they have been mass-produced in less expensive fabrics
designs that have all the dominant features of the style that inspire them but do not claim to be exact copies
Culmination Stage
the period when a fashion is at the height of its popularity and use
fashion is in such demand that it can be mass-produced, mass distributed, and sold at prices within the range of most customers
Decline stage
boredom with a fashion sets in, a decrease in consumer demand for that fashion
Obsolescence Stage
strong distaste for a style has set in and it can no longer be sold at any price
Fast fashion
retail strategy of keeping fashion fresh, as if it were a perishable good
Long-run fashions
take more seasons to complete their cycles than what might be considered average
Short-run fashions
take fewer seasons than average
Intangibles of Fashion
Group Acceptance, change, social class, lifestyle
The Five Principles of Fashion
1) Consumers establish fashions by accepting or rejecting the styles offered.
2) Fashions are not based on price.
3) Fashions are evolutionary, they are rarely revolutionary.
4) No amount of sales promotion can change the direction in which fashions are moving.
5) All fashions end in excess.
the conditions under which we live
Four environmental factors that affect fashion
1) Market segmentation by geographics, demographics, psychographics, and behavior.
2) The degree of economic development and well being of a country or society.
3) The sociological characteristics of the class structure.
4) The psychological attitudes of consumers.
Target markets
specific groups of potential customers that a business is attempting to turn into regular customers
Market segmentation
the separation of the total consumer market into smaller groups
population studies that focus on where people live
population studies that divide broad groups of customers into smaller, more homogeneous market segments
Studies that develop fuller, more personal portraits of potential customers and their lifestyles
PRIZM system
groups each US household into one of 66 segments based on zip code, demographics, consumer behavior, shopping habits, media preference, socioeconomic rank, and urbanization (what people buy not why)
VALS system
sorts customers into 8 major categories based on psychological attributes
Personal income
total or gross income received by the population as a whole
Per capita personal income
The amount a person has left to spend or save after paying taxes
Discretionary Income
the money that an individual or family can spend or save after buying necessities-food, clothing, shelter, and basic transportation
Purchasing power
what will something buy
an increase in available money and credit, with relative scarcity of goods, resulting in a significant rise in prices
a low point in the business cycle
Sociological Factors that influence fashion
leisure time, ethnic influence, status of women, social and physical mobility, instant communications, and wars, disasters, and crises
Five Psychological Factors that influence fashion
boredom, curiosity, reaction to convention, need for self assurance, desire for companionship
7 Accelerating Factors that speed up fashion cycle
1) Widespread buying power
2) Leisure time
3) Increased education
4) Improved status of women
5) Technological advances
6) Sales promotion
7) Seasonal change
Prophetic styles
interesting new styles that are still in the introduction phase of their fashion cycle
Downward Flow Theory
a style must first be adopted by the people at the top of the social pyramid, gradually wins acceptance at progressively lower social levels
Horizontal Flow Theory
fashions move horizontally between groups on similar social levels rather than vertically from one level to another
Fashion innovator
a person who is quicker than his or her associates to try out a new style
Fashion influential
a person whose advice is sought by associates
Upward flow theory
the young are quicker than any social group to create or adopt new and different fashions
net income, the amount of money a business earns in excess of its expenses
Four Levels of the Fashion Industry
Primary, Secondary, Retail, Auxiliary
Primary Level
composed of the growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion
Secondary Level
composed of industries-manufacturers and contractors- that produce the semifinished or finished fashion goods
Retail Level
the ultimate distribution level, different types of retailers who buy their goods from the secondary level and then supply them directly to the consumer
Auxiliary Level
functions with all other levels simultaneously, composed of all the support services that are working constantly with primary producers, secondary manufacturers, and retailers to keep consumers aware of the fashion merchandise produced for ultimate consumption
Horizontal Growth
expands capabilities on the level on which it has been performing successfully
Vertical Growth
Expands its capabilities on levels other than its primary function
a sale of one company to another company occurs, with the purchasing company usually remaining dominant
the addition of various lines, products, or services to serve different markets
the contract that gives an individual (or group of people) the right to own a business while benefitting from the expertise and reputation of an established firm
a legal arrangement whereby firms are given permission to produce and market merchandise in the name of the licensor for a specific period of time
High fashion designers
responsible for the full range of decisions of a fashion house as well as for establishing the image and creating designs for the company
Stylist designers
work for manufacturers and adapt the designs of others, typically of name designers
Freelance designers
sell sketches of their original designs or adaptations to manufacturers
High fashion apparel
group of designers and firms produces innovative apparel that is very expensive
Bridge market
group bridges the price range between custom designs and high-quality but less expensive merchandise
Better market
price range is just below that of the bridge lines
Moderate priced market
sometimes produces originals but usually turns out adaptations of styles that have survived the introduction stage and are in the rise stage of their fashion life cycle
Budget market
makes no attempt to offer new or unusual styling; mass-produce close copies or adaptations of styles that have proved their acceptance in high priced markets
an assortment of new designs with a designated period for delivery to the retailer
Firms: Fashion leaders
feature newly introduced styles that have only limited production and distribution (Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom)
Firms: Traditional Retailers
Fashions that have captured customer interest in their introduction stage and are in the late rise or early culmination stage of their life cycles (Macy's and Dillard's)
Mass merchants
widely accepted fashions that are well into culmination phase of their life cycles (JC Penney, Sears, Kohl's)
low end of mass market (Walmart, Kmart, Target); any retail operation that sells goods at less than full retail prices
an extremely fine strand that is the smallest element of a fabric
fibers that are spun or twisted into continuous threads
yarns that are knitted, woven, or bonded
Natural fibers
fibers found in nature, come from plant or animal sources
Manufactured fibers
made in a chemists' laboratory
Four major natural fibers
cotton, wool, silk, flax (linen)
most widely used of all the natural fibers, the substance attached to the seed of a cotton plant
fiber that forms the coat of a sheep
from the cocoon formed by a silkworm
used to make linen, comes from the stem of a flax plant
comes from a woody-leafed Asian plant grown mostly in China; linen like fabric suitable for warm-weather apparel, ramie is also inexpensive
a fibrous plant with an interesting history United States; illegal to grow hemp under federal law in the US
fibers of continuous, indefinite lengths are produced by forcing the liquid through the tiny holes of a mechanical device
Cellulosic fibers
Cellulose, the same fibrous substance found int he natural fibers of plants is used to manufacture this
Noncellulosic fibers
petroleum, natural gas, air, and water are used
molecules linked into long chains
Generic names
nontrademarked names
fiber producers modify the composition to produce a new fiber
Brand names
a fiber that is two or three times smaller than a human hair-smaller than wool, cotton, or silk fibers
Licensed trademarks
trademarks used under licensing agreements
Textile fabric
any material that is made by weaving, knitting, braiding, knotting, laminating, felting, or chemical bonding
Greige goods
unfinished fabrics
Textile converters
buy greige goods form the mils, have the goods processed to order by the finishing plants, and then sell the finished goods to the garment makers
Regular tanneries
purchase and process skins and hides and sell the leather as their finished product
Contract tanneries
process the hides and skins to the specifications of other firms (mainly converters) but are not involved in the final sale of the leather
buy the hides and skins from the meatpackers, commission the tanning to the contract tanneries, and then sell the finished leather
Sustainable use
an environmental program that encourages landowners to preserve alligator eggs and habitats in return for the right to use a percentage of the grown animals
those that weigh fifteen pounds or less when shipped to the tannery
weighing from fifteen to twenty five pounds
weighing more than twenty five pounds
the skin of a fur-bearing animal
Leased department
situated in the store but run by an independent merchant who pays a percentage of sales to the store as rent
Consignment selling
a fur manufacturer supplies merchandise to a retail store which has the option of returning unsold items
Product development
teaming of market and trend research with the merchandising , design, and technical processes that develop a final product
describes in expensive line in the US or Europe
lines are divided into groups of garments, linked by a common theme like color, fabric, or style
Apparel manufacturer
one who performs all the operations required to produce apparel, form buying the fabric to selling and shipping the finished garments
Apparel jobber
handles the designing, the planning, the purchasing, usually the cutting, the selling, and the shipping but not the actual sewing operation
Apparel contractor
a producer whose sole function is to supply sewing services to the industry
Section work or piece work
when each operator only sews a certain section of the garment, such as a sleeve or hem
Large manufacturers
merchandisers are responsible for developing new lines. merchandisers plan the overall fashion direction for the coming season and direct a design staff about the kinds of garments to be designed
Designer-Owned Firms
the designer is also the owner, the designer may design all or part of a line, using other designers to fill out the line
Small manufacturers
all the activities in the product development process may be done by the owner, with one or more assistants
Sample hand
garment is sewn by a designer's assistant, who is also a seamstress
Computer-aided design (CAD)
using computers to draw designs
minimum orders
manufacturers set minimum orders for the quantity, number of styles, and/dollar amount required to accept the retail buyer's order
garment is sloped to each of the various sizes in which it will be made
pieces of garment are laid out on a long piece of paper
carries the material along a guide on either side of the cutting table, spreading the material evenly from end to end
pieces of each pattern are tied into bundles according to their sizes; must be done by hand
Single-hand operations
one operator sews the entire garment
Modular manufacturing system
teams of seven to nine workers produce entire garments, passing hem on to each other until the garment is complete
Floor Ready
bar coded price tickets attached, Cartons labeled and shipping documents attached
quality assurance, refers to the product meeting the standards established for it, includes the inspection of each ingredient of the garment: fabric, thread, buttons, snaps or zippers, hem tape, linings, shoulder pads....
National brands
those that are owned by a manufacturer who advertises them nationally
Private label
one that is owned by a retailer and found only in its stores
Retail store brand
name of a chain that is used as the exclusive label on most of the items in the store or catalog
Corporate licensing
the use of a company's name on related merchandise, is the fastest growing segment of licensing today
Specification buying
a type of purchasing that is done to the store's rather than the manufacturer's standards
Specification manager
trained in specification buying
Offshore production
the manufacturing of goods abroad where labor is cheaper; reduce costs and therefore compete more effectively with low-cost imports
companies purchase a manufacturer's accounts receivable or advance cash on the basis of the accounts receivable; interest rates are generally higher than those of a bank
financial penalties imposed on manufacturing by retailers
Product Lifestyle Management PLM
strategic system that links information within a manufacturing company to increase efficiency and manage the life of a product
Mass customization
tailer the product to fit one particular customer not one size fits all and to supply thousands of individuals at mass prices not custom-made prices
Brand extension
a company uses a successful brand name to launch new or modified products
Custom made
fitted to the individual who would wear them and then sewn by hand
Ready to wear
clothes produced in factories to standardized measurements
International Ladies Garment Workers Union was formed in 1900 to improve working conditions and remained the major garment industry union for many years
Needletrade, Industrial, and Textile Employees; 1995 merged with ILGWU, represented the majority of workers in basic apparel and textiles, as well as millinery, shoes, gloves
opinions of specific products or services and the actual rate of use of these products or services
Personal income
the total or gross income received by the population as a whole
Per capita personal income
divide personal income by the number of people in the population
Disposable income
the amount a person has left to spend or save after paying taxes
apparel made for specific sports and exercise activities but it has also become part of many people's everyday wardrobes
Price zones
series of somewhat contiguous price lines that appeal to specific target groups of customers
Trunk shows
present a manufacturer's line to a retail store's sale staff and its customers
First retail store to open in New York 1818
Brooks Brothers'
represented the workers in virtually all domestic plants in the tailored clothing segment of menswear manufacturing
Tailored clothing firms
produce structured or semi-structured suits, overcoats, topcoats, sports coats, formal wear, and separate slacks that involve hand-tailoring
the difference in inches between the chest measurement of a suit jacket and the waist of the pants
European styling
more fitted jacket, built-up shoulders, and a higher armhole
the trade term for women's underwear, usually divided into foundations
Foundations of innerwear
support either the bust or the lower torso
less structured innerwear and sleepwear
loose-fitting apparel designed for home entertaining
ability to carry the moisture of perspiration away from the skin
American Apparel and Footwear Association, the national trade association representing apparel, footwear, and sewn products companies, compete in the global marketplace
Department store
Full customer service and Flagship and branch configuration; a retail store carrying a general line of apparel, home furnishings, and housewares, and employing more than 50 people
Chain store
centralized buying and store units have similar appearance
Flea market
operates from a temporary or permanent location and independent entrepreneurs pay for space
Departmentalized specialty store
Carries either soft goods or hard goods and intimate knowledge of customers
Manufacturer owned store
Type of specialty store and carries one brand or label of in-season, full-price merchandise
Specialty chains
Extensive use of private label and 100 or more store units
minimal customer services and sells budget priced merchandise
Off-price retailer
Sells broken assortments of merchandise and designer and national brands are sold at reduced prices
Factory outlet stores
used by retailers and manufacturers to sell excess merchandise;discount operations run by a manufacturer
Warehouse or wholesale clubs
Buys merchandise in bulk quantities and membership is a requirement; stock a limited number of apparel stock keeping units-generally whatever brands they can buy; Costco, Sam's Club, BJ's
individual entrepreneurs operates store units as part of a chain and parent company provides merchandise and training
category killers
low prices to customers derived from volume discounts and extreme narrow and deep assortments; superstores or category specialists who so dominate a market that they drive out or "kill" smaller specialty stores
sells soft goods and highly individual selection of merchandise; a shop that carries exclusive merchandise
Thrift stores
Type of underselling retailer and previously owned merchandise
Internet retailer
global retailer and 24/7 availability
small evening bags
Rack trade
manufacturers who produce belts to be sold as separate fashion accessory items
Cut up trade
manufactures belts to be sold as part of a dress, skirt, or pair of trousers
women's hat industry
Private label manufacturers
producing merchandise to specification under the brand names of chain stores
Franchise distribution
manufacturer or exclusive distributor sells directly to the ultimate retailer
Joint merchandising
the store shares in the payment of salaries
stores use these, gift with purchase or a purchase with purchase offer, to promote their products
Home fashions
the umbrella term used frequently today to describe the two fashion-driven industries that have been long called home furnishings and home accessories
Tapletop goods
dinnerwear, glasswear, and flatwear
Product categories of Soft Goods
Bed linens, bath linens, table linens, window treatments, upholstery fabric, miscellaneous, area rugs
Three types of glassware
tumblers, footed tumblers, stemware
Place where goods are offered for sale and sold at wholesale prices
Domestic market
market in one's own country
foreign market
the places outside of the US
Market centers
a city where fashion is offered and sold wholesale
a building or complex of buildings that houses a wholesale market; that is an exhibition of fashions that are ready to be sold to retail stores
Market week
during this time, market centers and marts are filled with producers and designers, all of whom exhibit new lines
Trade shows
periodic exhibits that are scheduled throughout the year in regional market centers and some marts; smaller than market weeks and usually attended by buyers from one region of the country
Haute couture
original designs, use luxury fabrics, are known for exquisite detailing, are expensive out of necessity and thus are made in very limited numbers
"ready to wear", produced in far larger numbers than haute couture
Couture house
apparel firm for which a designer creates original designs and styles
Global sourcing
Process of shopping for and purchasing imported goods
Offshore production
use of foreign workers in one or more countries to complete the steps of manufacturing the goods that bear the producer's label
foreign owned independent agents; represent both retailers and manufacturers
Balance of trade
difference between the value of exports and the value of imports
Trade deficit
Value of goods that a country imports exceeds the value of its exports
Trade surplus
country's exports exceed its imports
an economic and political doctrine that seeks to exclude or limit foreign goods
Free trade
supports the free exchange of goods among nations
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; played a major role in reducing trade barriers and unifying trading practices among member nations
Import quotas
limits set to restrict the number of specific goods that may be brought into the country for a specific period of time
Absolute quotas
limit the quantity of goods that may enter the United States
Tariff-rate quotas
set a limit after which a higher duty is charged on goods entering the country
fee assessed by the government on certain goods that it wishes to restrict or limit
Counterfeit goods
inferior imitations passed off as the genuine article
Bootleg goods
not cheap rip-offs; cannot be distinguished form the real ones; they are made by the same manufacturers who make the real ones but who sell some goods to the black market
Black market
illicit goods or commodities that are in violation of official regulations are traded
Gray market goods
goods that were not intended for sale in the country in which they are being sold
Fashion retailing
involves the business of buying and selling- or merchandising- apparel, accessories, and home fashions
The Five R's
the right merchandise, the right price, the right place, the right time, in the right quantities
Bon Marche
first department store in Paris
Starting retailers in the US
General stores, peddlers, and mail-order sellers
General stores
an early form of retail store which carried a wide variety of mainly utilitarian consumer goods
rural free delivery, a system of free mail delivery to rural areas
General merchandisers
JC Penny, Sears, Target, retailers that typically sell many kinds of merchandise in addition to clothing
Specialty retailers
offer limited lines of related merchandise targeted to a more specific customer
main stores
Discount department stores
retailers that offer well-known branded apparel at 20-60 percent of department store prices; store format resembles that of a department store
Discount general merchandisers
Walmart, Carrefour; carry a broad range of products, from apparel to electronics, typically private label and basics, prices are lower than department stores or specialty stores
Discount/off-price specialty stores
low-price apparel from private labels and typically lower-end brands
offer discount grocery or superstore items and products commonly found in department stores
Chain organization
a group of centrally owned stores, four or more, each of which handles similar goos and merchandise; can be a mass merchandiser known or its low prices, department store known for high-quality mid-price goods, or a specialty merchandiser selling exclusive designs at high prices
Category buying or classification buying
a practice whereby a chain store buyer located in a central buying office is usually assigned to purchase only a specific category or classification of merchandise instead of buying all categories carried in a single department
Departmental buying
a practice whereby a department buyer is responsible for buying all the various categories of merchandise carried in that department
Leased departments
sections of a retail store that are owned and operated by outside organizations
Off-price retailing
selling of brand-name and designer merchandise at lower-than-normal retail prices when the products are at the late rise or early peak in the fashion cycle
Non-store retailing
direct selling, catalog retailers, TV home shopping, and online shopping sites
Merchandising policies
general and specific guidelines and goals established by store management and adjusted according to current trends and marketplace needs to keep the store on target
the range of stock a retailer features
Narrow and deep assortment
stocks relatively few styles but has them in many sizes and colors
Broad and shallow assortment
offers many different styles in limited sizes and colors
1) Store may prevail upon vendors to confine one or more styles to their store for a period of time and or within their trading area.
2) Can buy from producers who will manufacture goods to their specifications.
3) They can become the sole agent within their trading area for new, young designers.
4) they can seek out and buy from domestic or foreign sources of supply that no one else has discovered.
5) They can create private labels.
Confined styles
to minimize competition over national brands, some major retailers insist on buying exclusive styles from national brand manufacturers
Operational policies
designed to keep the customers once that are attracted enough to come into the store
Sensory retailing
in store stimulation of all customers' senses
Shopping center
coordinated group of retail stores, plus a parking area
shopping centers that are enclosed and climate-controlled
Vertical malls
multistory buildings taller than they are wide
Power centers/power strips
outdoor shopping centers that offer three or four category killers together, so that a range of merchandise is available at highly discounted prices
Regional malls
usually containat least two anchor department stores as well as many specialty stores and a food court or restaurants
Superregional malls
even larger than regional malls, often containing up to one million square feet
Life-stage marketing
marketing strategy that targets a specific demographic
Strategic Alliance
Form of business combination in which retailers and manufacturers join forces to operate more efficiently, thus improving both companies' profits while enabling them to give the customer a better product at a lower price
free and voluntary mention of a firm, product, or person in the media
Public relations
also a free and voluntary mention, but it is designed to enhance a long-term goal such as the shaping of a company's public image
Shelter magazines
magazines devoted to home fashions
Editorial credit
a unique form of publicity that names the manufacturer and lists retail stores where the clothes may be purchased
Trade publication
trade newspapers and magazines that are published just for the industry; keep their special readers informed about what is going on in the fashion world
Fashion stylists
may select and coordinate the apparel and accessories for store catalogs and print ads, for magazine articles, or for commercials
Visual merchandising
the arrangement and presentation of merchandise in store windows and on the selling floor
Buying, merchandising, and product development organization (RBO)
serve the ongoing needs of a store or group of stores for a steady supply of new merchandise; watch and report on fashion trends, help with strategic planning, make vendor recommendations, coordinate imports, and assist in product development
Associated or cooperative office
cooperatively owned and operated by a group of privately owned stores for their mutual use
Corporate owned office or syndicated office
maintained by a parent organization exclusively for the stores it owns
Criteria for "ready to wear"
merchandise must be mass produced and use standardized sizing
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Event resulted in strengthening unionization in womenswear industry
Invention of the foot-treadle sewing machine
event contributed to the growth of the ready-to-wear womenswear industry
Slop shops
early retail businesses selling low quality ready-made menswear
Standardization of menswear is associated with...
The Civil War
Dual Distribution
Manufacturers sell their goods in their own stores as well as other retail outlets
An important secondary market for children's apparel...
The sample size in a size range is...
the median size
A characteristic of the natural fiber industry...
use of trade associations to collectively promote its members' products
Characteristic of the man made fiber industry...
use of brand names to promote each company's fibers
Two advantages associated with using a converter rather than a vertical mill...
smaller minimum order yardage and faster delivery times
The step in textile production after cleaning or creating the fibers is...
spinning fibers into yarn
During the textile production process, when is color added?
Color is added from the fiber stage on.
In the textile industry, a company engaged in all stages of the production and distribution of finished a fabric, from fiber to fabric, is called a...
vertically integrated mill.
The most important function of a converter is to...
process greige goods and arrange to have it finished
Regular tannery
Purchase and process skins and hides into leather in their own facilities
process of transforming pelts into leather
Consignment selling
an agreement that allows a fur manufacturer to supply merchandise to a retailer, which has the option of returning unsold items
Leased department
an agreement in which an independent merchant pays a percentage of sales to a store as rent for a space in a store
Contract tannery
process skins and hides for converters, but are not involved in the final sale of the leather
Converter tannery
a business that buys hides and skins from meat packers, commissions the tanning to others and sells the finished products to manufacturers
Sales representatives
company representatives who exhibit merchandise to potential customers