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40 Cards in this Set

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Operon Components

Operator, Promoter, Genes that are transcribed.

Viral Capsid

Protein Shell or Coat

Capsomeres

Smaller subunit of Capsids (shell coat)

2 Steps of Viral Infection

1) Recognition of the Host


2) Entry of Viral Genome into the Host

Ways Virus Enters the Host?

-injection of nucleic acid


-fusion


-endocytosis

Virulent Phages

Bacteriophage that produce only by the lytic cycle

Temperate Phages

Bacteriophages capable of both lytic AND lysogenic cycles.

Hemagglutinin

Viral sufrace protein that helps the virus attach to the cell (16 types)

Neuramindiase

an enzyme that helps release new viruses from infected cells

Geometric Equivelence

Almost all somatic cells of an organism have the same DNA, which means they contain the entire set of genetic information (genome)

Host Cells for Genetic Cloning

Yeast and Bacteria

Thermocyclers

Thermal Cycles


1) Denaturing (makes DNA single standed)


2) Annealing (cooling)


3) Extention (optimum temp to extend the primer)

Phenotypic Plasticity

A single genotype can exhibit a wide range of phenotypes.

Plasmids

small ring of double stranded DNA that carries "accesory" genes.

Corepressor

Converts an inactive repressor protein to an active repressor protein.

Inducer

Converts an active repressor protein to an inactive repressor protein

Repressible Operon

normally "ON"

Inducible Operon

normally "OFF"

Histone Acetylation

loosens the chromatin structure & increases access to genes for transcription.

Histone Methylation

methylation of tails causes condensation of chromatin.

Histone Phosphorolation

addition of a phosphate, causes "loosening" of packing.

Epigenetic Inheritance

Inheritance of traits transmitted by mechanisms not involving the nucleotide sequence (ex: patterns of methylation)

Enhancers

Distal control elements that allow "full-speed" transcription. Regions on a DNA molecule.

MicroRNA

non-coding RNA

Proto-oncogenes

"normal" versions of genes that code for proteins involved in normal cell growth & division.

Oncogenes

"cancer causing" version of proto-oncogenes

Broad Host Range

INFECT multiple species: ex: mosqiutos, birds, horses, humans, etc.

trp Operon

Normally ON - turned off when trp is active

lac Operon

Normally off - turned on when allactose is present.

Similarities betwen lac and trp operons

Both examples of negative gene control bc they're switched off by an active form of a repressor molecule.

Why is gene expression more complex in Eukaryotes than Prokaryotes?

1) the genome in eukaryotes is larger


2)coexpression --> envolves chemical signaling


3) higher structural levels than prokaryotes

How does a virus recognize a host cell?

"matching" proteins on their surface - specific receptor molecules on the host cell.

3 ways viral genome can enter a cell?

1)Endocytosis
2)Fusion


3)Injection

How is HIV replicated within a host cell?

-two identical molecules of single-stranded RNA


- enter host cell


- HIV has REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE


- RNA->DNA flow.


-provirus (takes a long time to leave host gene)

iPS Cell

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell - cells programmed to act as embryonic stem cells.

Shape of Capsids can be ...

-Rod Shaped


-Helix


-Linear, Circular


-Single or Double Stranded

Staggered vs Blunt Ends

Clean vs Puzzle cuts in DNA

Cut and Pasted strands are bound back together using

DNA Ligase

Where does a repressor protein come from?

Regulatory Gene

Narrow Host Range

Only infect a single species