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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 influences on metabolic rate
1. physical activity
2. termperature
3. eating
What's the unit of measure of energy provided in food and energy consumed by the body?
When caloric intake > energy expenditure over a period of time, excess calories are stored as _____.
2 types of vitamins
1. water-soluble
2. fat-soluble
4 fat-soluble vitamins
1. A
2. D
3. E
4. K
Water-soluble vitamins needed for enzyme activity involved in ____ _________.
cell respiration
Gland which regulates eating behavior
5 neurotransmitters which control eating behavior
1. endorphins
2. norepinephrine
3. serotonin
4. cholecystokinin
5. neuropeptide Y
Adipose cells [are/are not] endocrine in nature.
What is secreted by adipocytes?
regulates food intake and metabolism
A rise in plasma glucose stimulates ________ and inhibits __________.
insulin; glucagon secretion
Amino acids stimulate secretion of ________ and _________.
insulin; glucagon
promotes uptake of blood glucose into skeletal muscle and other tissues
Major organs that remove blood glucose in response to insulin stimulation.
skeletal muscles
2 things that happen during fasting:
1. insulin secretion decreases
2. glucagon secretion increases
4 processes stimulated by glucagon:
1. glycogenolysis in the liver
2. gluconeogenesis
3. lipolysis
4. ketogenesis
helps to maintain adequate levels of blood glucose for the brain and provide alternative energy sources for other organs
2 disorders of islets of Langerhans:
1. diabetes mellitus
2. reactive hypoglycemia
Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs when _______ cells are destroyed.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs as a result of ________ and ___________.
relative tissue insensitivity to insulin; inadequate insulin secretion
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is aggravated by _______ and improved by _______.
obesity; exercise
What causes reactive hypoglycemia?
Islets secrete too much insulin in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration.
2 adrenal hormones involved in energy regulation:
1. epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
2. glucocortioids (adrenal cortex)
Epinephrine stimulates__________ and ________ and activates increased metabolism of ______ fat.
glycogenolysis; lipolysis; brown
2 processes promoted by glucocorticoids:
1. breakdown of muscle protein
2. conversion of amino acids to glucose in the liver
Thyroxine stimulates _____________.
rate of cell respiration throughout the body
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
rate at which energy (and oxygen) is consume by the body at rest
Thyroxine promotes _________ and is needed for proper ____________ and ___________, especially of the CNS.
protein synthesis; body growth; development

specific actions the nurse takes that are designed to assist the client to achieve expected client outcomes
Growth hormone stimulates _______ and inhibits __________.
catabolism of lipids; glucose utilization
Growth hormone also stimulates ____________ and thus promotes body growth.
protein synthesis
polypeptides called insulin-like hormones which produce the anabolic effects of growth hormone
Bone contains _______ and _______ in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals.
calcium; phosphate
Bone serves as a reserve supply of calcium and phosphate for the _______.
form bone
reabsorb bone
Parathyroid hormone stimulates __________ and ___________, thus raising the blood calcium concentration.
bone resorption; calcium resorption in the kidneys
What stimulates secretion of parathyroid hormone?
decreased blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hormone inhibits ________.
resorption of phosphate in the kidneys, so more phosphate is excreted in urine
What secretes calcitonin?
parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A rise in blood calcium levels stimulates secretion of _________.
Calcitonin lowers blood calcium by inhibiting _____ and stimulating _________.
bone resorption; urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate