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43 Cards in this Set

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3 influences on metabolic rate
1. physical activity
2. termperature
3. eating
What's the unit of measure of energy provided in food and energy consumed by the body?
kilocalorie
When caloric intake > energy expenditure over a period of time, excess calories are stored as _____.
fat
2 types of vitamins
1. water-soluble
2. fat-soluble
4 fat-soluble vitamins
1. A
2. D
3. E
4. K
Water-soluble vitamins needed for enzyme activity involved in ____ _________.
cell respiration
Gland which regulates eating behavior
hypothalamus
5 neurotransmitters which control eating behavior
1. endorphins
2. norepinephrine
3. serotonin
4. cholecystokinin
5. neuropeptide Y
Adipose cells [are/are not] endocrine in nature.
are
What is secreted by adipocytes?
leptin
Leptin
regulates food intake and metabolism
A rise in plasma glucose stimulates ________ and inhibits __________.
insulin; glucagon secretion
Amino acids stimulate secretion of ________ and _________.
insulin; glucagon
Insulin
promotes uptake of blood glucose into skeletal muscle and other tissues
Major organs that remove blood glucose in response to insulin stimulation.
skeletal muscles
2 things that happen during fasting:
1. insulin secretion decreases
2. glucagon secretion increases
4 processes stimulated by glucagon:
1. glycogenolysis in the liver
2. gluconeogenesis
3. lipolysis
4. ketogenesis
Glucagon
helps to maintain adequate levels of blood glucose for the brain and provide alternative energy sources for other organs
2 disorders of islets of Langerhans:
1. diabetes mellitus
2. reactive hypoglycemia
Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs when _______ cells are destroyed.
beta
Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs as a result of ________ and ___________.
relative tissue insensitivity to insulin; inadequate insulin secretion
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is aggravated by _______ and improved by _______.
obesity; exercise
What causes reactive hypoglycemia?
Islets secrete too much insulin in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration.
2 adrenal hormones involved in energy regulation:
1. epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
2. glucocortioids (adrenal cortex)
Epinephrine stimulates__________ and ________ and activates increased metabolism of ______ fat.
glycogenolysis; lipolysis; brown
2 processes promoted by glucocorticoids:
1. breakdown of muscle protein
2. conversion of amino acids to glucose in the liver
Thyroxine stimulates _____________.
rate of cell respiration throughout the body
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
rate at which energy (and oxygen) is consume by the body at rest
Thyroxine promotes _________ and is needed for proper ____________ and ___________, especially of the CNS.
protein synthesis; body growth; development
(def)

specific actions the nurse takes that are designed to assist the client to achieve expected client outcomes
Goal
Growth hormone stimulates _______ and inhibits __________.
catabolism of lipids; glucose utilization
Growth hormone also stimulates ____________ and thus promotes body growth.
protein synthesis
Somatomedins
polypeptides called insulin-like hormones which produce the anabolic effects of growth hormone
Bone contains _______ and _______ in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals.
calcium; phosphate
Bone serves as a reserve supply of calcium and phosphate for the _______.
blood
Osteoblasts
form bone
Osteoclasts
reabsorb bone
Parathyroid hormone stimulates __________ and ___________, thus raising the blood calcium concentration.
bone resorption; calcium resorption in the kidneys
What stimulates secretion of parathyroid hormone?
decreased blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hormone inhibits ________.
resorption of phosphate in the kidneys, so more phosphate is excreted in urine
What secretes calcitonin?
parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland
A rise in blood calcium levels stimulates secretion of _________.
calcitonin
Calcitonin lowers blood calcium by inhibiting _____ and stimulating _________.
bone resorption; urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate