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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
emotions
subjective reactions to experience that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes
self conscious emotions
emotions, such as embarrassment,empathy,and envy, that depend on self awareness
self-awareness
realization that one's existence and functioning are separate from those of other people
self-evaluative emotions
emotions,such as pride,shame,and guilt that depend on both self-awareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior
empathy
ability to put oneself in another person's place and feel what the other person feels
social cognition
ability to understand that other people have mental stages and to gauge their feelings and intentions
egocentrism
Piaget's term for inability to consider another person's point of view; a characteristic of young children's thought
temperament
characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations
easy children
children with generally happy temperament,regular biological rythms, and readiness to except new experience
difficult children
children with irritable temperament,irregular biological rhythms, and intense emotional responses
slow-to-warm children
children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitent to except new experiences
goodness to fit
appropriatness of environmental demands and constraints to a childs temperment
gender-typing
socialization process by which children, at an early age learn appropriate gender roles
basic trust vs basic mistrust
erikson's first crisis in psychosocial development in which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people and objects
attachement
reciprocal,enduring tie between two people especially between infant and caregiver
strange situation
laboratory technique used to study infant attachment
secure attachment
pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver upon his or her return
avoidant attachment
pattern in which an infant rarely cries when seperated from primary caregiver and avoids contact upon his or her return
ambivalent (resistant) attachment
pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves is extremely upset during their absence and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return
disorganized-disoriented attachment
pattern in which an infant after seperation from the primary caregiver shows contradictory behaviors upon his or her return
stranger anxiety
wariness of strange people and places,shown by some infants during the second half of the first year
separation anxiety
distress shown by someone typically an infant when a familiar caregiver leaves
self concept
sense of self: descriptive evaluative mental picture of one's abilties and traits
self efficacy
sense of one's own capability to master challenges and achieve goal
self regualtion
a persons independent control of behavior to conform to understood social expectations
discipline
methods of modeling children's character and of teaching them to exercise self control
power assertion
discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control
gender differences
psychological or behavioral differences between males and females
sex differences
physical differences between males and females
gender roles
behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and traits that culture considers appropriate for each sex
gender typing
socialization process where children at an early age learn appropriate gender roles
gender stereotypes
preconcieved generalizations about male or female behavior
functional play
play involving repetative muscular movements
constructive play
play involving use of objects or materials to make something
pretend play
play involving imaginary people or situation
unoccupied behavior
child isn't playing but watches anything interesting
onlooker behavior
watches other kids play but doesn't play with them
solitary/ independent play
plays by themselves and makes no effort to play with the other children around them
parallel play
plays independently among other children
associative play
child plays with others and talks about the games they are playing
organized play
plays organized games and one or two children control the group
authoritarian
emphasizes control and obedience
permissive
emphasizing self-expression and self regulation
authoritative
blending respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values
sociometric popularity
which peers children like the most and least
popular
people who have many positive nominations
rejected
people who have many negative nominations
neglected
people who have few nominations of either kind
average
people who don't recieve an unusual amount of either
percieved popularity
which children are liked best by their peers
resilient children
those who weather adverse circumstances
identity statuses
states of ego development that depend on the prescence or absence of a crisis or commitment
identity acheivement
characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis or period spent in exploring alternatives
foreclosure
person who hasn't spent time considering alternatives is committed to other people's plans for his or her life
moratorium
person is currently considering alternatives and seems headed for commitment
identity diffusion
absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives
cliques
expanded circles of friends considering young people of the same age,gender,ethnicity and membership is based on popularity status
member of a clique
ties are within the group
liason of a clique
has ties to one or more cliques
isolate
not connected with any clique
life structure
underlying pattern or design of a person's life at a given time
triangular subtheory of love
patterns of love hinge on the balance among three elements; intimacy passion and commitment
intimacy
emotional element involving self disclosure which leads to connection warmth and trust
passion
motivational element based on inner desires that translate physiological arousals into sexual desires
commitment
cognitive element; is the decision to love and stay with the beloved
single representations
first stage in development of self definition in which children describe themselves in terms of individual unconnected characteristics and in all or nothing terms
instrumental aggression
aggressive behavior used as means of achieving a goal
hostile aggression
aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person
normative life events
in the timing of events model commonly expected experience that occur at customary times
ego-control
self control
ego-resilency
adaptability under potential sources of stress
developmental tasks
in normative stage theories typical changes that need to be mastered for succsessful adaptation to each stage of life
disengagement theory
theory of aging which holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawl between the old person and society
adolescent rebellion
pattern of emotional turmoil characteristic of a minority of adolescents which may involve conflict with family, alienation from society, reckless behavior and rejection of adult values
activity theory
theory of aging which holds that in order to age successfully a person must remain as active as possible
life review
reminisce about one's life in order to see its significance
revolving door syndrome
tendency for young adults who have left home to return to their parent's households in times of financial,material,or other trouble
sandwich generation
middle-aged adults squeezed by competeing needs to raise or launch children and to care for elderly parents