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35 Cards in this Set

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Cell theory

Scientific theory describing the property of cells

1. Cells are basic unit of structure and reproduction


2. All life forms are made from one or more cells

Prokaryotes

Single called organism that does not have a membrane bound nucleus

1. Typically bacteria


2. Unlike eukaryotes

Eukaryotes

DNA is contained within a distinct nucleus

1. All living organisms besides eubacteria and achaebacteria


2. Have organelles


3. Means true nucleus

Nucleus

Dense organelle containing genetic material

1. Comand center of cell


2. "The nucleus takes over controlling everything"


3. Bound by a double membrane

Chromosome

Structures that are thread like located inside the nucleus

1. Made of protein and a single molecule of DNA 
2. X shaped 

1. Made of protein and a single molecule of DNA


2. X shaped

Nucleoid

Contains most of genetic material in a prokaryote

1. Means "nucleus like"


2. Not bound by a nuclear membrane

Plasmids

Double stranded DNA molecule

1. Can replicate independent of the chromosomes


2. Often used in experiments that manipulate genes


3. Spherical

Flagella

Whip like structure that allows cells to move

1. Move liquid past the surface of the cell

1. Move liquid past the surface of the cell

Cell/plasma membrane

Separates interior of cells from the outside invironment

1. AKA cytoplasmic membrane


2. Selectively permeable


3. Controls movement of substances in and out of the cell

Cell wall

Rigid layer of polysaccharides out of a plants cell membrane

1. Used to maintain structure and protect the cell 

1. Used to maintain structure and protect the cell

Ribosomes

Responsible for producing protein in all cells

1. 2/3 RNA and 1/3 protein 

1. 2/3 RNA and 1/3 protein

Cytoplasm

Thick solution that fills each cell

1. Enclosed by cell membrane 
2. Composed of water, salts and proteins 

1. Enclosed by cell membrane


2. Composed of water, salts and proteins

Cytosol

Fluid part of cytoplasm

1. Aqueous component


2. Not held by any organelles in the cell

Organelles

Structure with specialized function

1. Located in cytoplasm


2. "Cells, cells, they're made of organelles"

Nucleolus

Small body in the nucleus containing protein and RNA

1. Involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis 

1. Involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis

Cytoskelton

Helps cells maintain shape and internal organization

1. Helps cells carry out important functions like division and movement


2. Made up of protein filaments

Microtubules

Tubular structure that helps form intracellular highways and moveable appendages

1. Responsible from various kinds of movement 

1. Responsible from various kinds of movement

Microfilaments

Tube like cell structure composed of protein

1. Form with Microtubules to make the cytoskeleton


2. Thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton

Rough ER

Network of membranes involved in transport of materials with a surface studded with ribosomes

1. Tubular 
2. Within cytoplasm 

1. Tubular


2. Within cytoplasm

Smooth ER

Network of membranes involved in transport of materials With a smooth surface

1. Similar function as rough ER


2. Produces hormones and lipids

Golgi apparatus

Complex of vesicles and folded membranes involved in intracellular transport

1. Usually near the nucleus


3. Packaging organelle

Vesicles

Fluid or air filled sac

1. Small structure, helps form Golgi apparatus 

1. Small structure, helps form Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Specialized vesicle

1. Holds a variety of enzymes 
2. Serve as digestive compartments

1. Holds a variety of enzymes


2. Serve as digestive compartments

Vacuoles

Storage units of cells usually filled with water

1. "In the vacuole we could float around for hours..."


2. Present in all plant cells

Centrioles

Helps cellular division, found near the nucleus

1. Found in pairs 
2. Found only in animal cells 

1. Found in pairs


2. Found only in animal cells

Cilia

Hairlike structures that extend from the outside of the cell

1. Identical to flagella 

1. Identical to flagella

Mitochondria

Organelle that produces energy for the cell

1. Powerhouse of the cell


2. Site of respiration and energy production

Chloroplast

Absorbs sun to create process of photosynthesis in a plant cell
1. "Running round with chloroplasts lovin sun like showers" 

1. "Running round with chloroplasts lovin sun like showers"

Colony

Group of organisms cluster together

1. Presumably came from the same cell 

1. Presumably came from the same cell

Multicellular

Organisms consisting of more than one cell

1. Opposite of unicellular 

1. Opposite of unicellular

Cell differentiation

The process of a cell changing from one cell type to another

1. Less specialized-> more specialized


2. Common in cell growth

Tissue

Ensemble of similar cells of the same origin

1. Form organs


2. Structure level between cells and organs

Organ

Collection of tissues that serve a common function

1. Made up of multiple tissues 
2. AKA viscus 

1. Made up of multiple tissues


2. AKA viscus

Organ system

Collection of organs with similar function

1. Nervous, circulatory, and respiratory are all _______s. 

1. Nervous, circulatory, and respiratory are all _______s.

Organism

Any contiguous living system

1. Includes animals, plants, and bacteria 

1. Includes animals, plants, and bacteria