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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lying position of the body, face down
Prone
Toward the lower end of the body
Caudal 尾侧
The outward part or surface of a structure
Peripheral
Sagittal plane = _____ plane
Midsagittal plane
Frontal plane = ______ plane
Coronal plane
Horizontal plane = _______ plane
Transverse plane
_______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL < _______ LEVEL
CHEMICAL LEVEL < ORGANELLE LEVEL < CELLULAR LEVEL < TISSUE LEVEL < ORGAN LEVEL < SYSTEM LEVEL < ORGANISM LEVEL
Gases and solids pass through the plasma membrane through a process known as _____.
diffusion
The cytoplasm is made of various ______ and molecules suspended in a watery fluid called _____.
organelles 细胞器
cytosol 细胞质, or intracellular fluid.
Tissues are classified into four main groups: ___, ___, ___ and ___.
epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous
Three categories of epithelial tissue: ___, ___ and ___.
columnar, squamous, and cuboidal
1. The chief function of ____ tissue is the secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of nutrients from digested foods.
columnar epithelial tissue
_____ Tissue is the main protective tissue of the body.
Squamous epithelial tissue
In the kidneys, _____ tissue functions in the secretion and absorption of fluids.
cuboidal epithelial tissue
Three predominant types of connective tissue: ___, ___ and ___.
areolar乳晕, adipose, and osseous.
Adipose tissue is "_____ tissue."
fatty tissue
Osseous Tissue, known as "____ tissue" is dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones.
bone tissue
______ glands are found in most parts of the skin except in the soles of the feet and the palms of the hand.
Sebaceous glands 皮脂腺
______ tissue is the most complex tissue in the body. The basic cell of the this tissue is the _____.
Nerve
neuron
______ receives simulation; ______ transfer simulation.
Dendrites
Axon
Five sub-layers or strata of epidermal cells have been identified, and, listed from superficial to deep, they are the ____, ____, ____, ____ and ____.
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum (not always present), stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. 角质层,地层灵芝, 颗粒层,棘层和基底层
_____ is the study of the structure of bone.
Osteology
The skeleton, the bony framework of the body, is composed of ____ bones.
206 bones
Bone is made up of inorganic mineral salts (calcium and phosphorus being the most prevalent) and an organic substance called _____.
ossein
Bone consists of a hard outer shell, called ____ bone, and an inner spongy, porous portion, called ______ tissue. In the center of the bone is the medullary canal, which contains _____. There are two types of marrow, ____ and ____.
compact bone
cancellous tissue
marrow
yellow and red marrow
At the ends of the long bones is a smooth, glossy tissue that forms the joint surfaces. This tissue is called ______.
articular cartilage
The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone is called the ______, it supplys nourishment to the bone.
periosteum
what kind of bones are vertebrae, mandible, and pelvic bones?
Irregular bones
what kind of bones are skull, sternum, and scapula?
Flat bones
The skull consists of ___ bones, ___ of which form the framework of the head and provide protection for the brain, eyes, and ears; ___ are ear bones.
28
22
6
The facial skeleton consists of ___ stationary bones and a mobile lower jawbone (____).
13
mandible
The small holes on each side of the nasal opening are called the _______ (sing. foramen).
infraorbital foramina
The maxillary bones contain large cavities called ______.
maxillary sinuses
The _____ bones are L-shaped bones located behind the maxillary bones.
palatine bone
The _____ bones are responsible for the prominence of the cheeks.
zygomatic bone
The _____ bones provide a pathway for a tube that carries tears from the eye to the nasal cavity; Thin and scale-like (鳞片状) structure located in the medial wall of each orbit.
lacrimal
The ________ are curved, fragile, scroll-shaped bones that lie in the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
inferior nasal conchae
The _______ bone is connected to the ethmoid bone, and together they form the nasal septum. It’s a thin, flat, single bone almost trapezoid in shape.
vomer bone
_____ bone has a wing-like shape and is in the front part of the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits.
Sphenoid bone
The _____ is horseshoe-shaped, with an upward sloping portion at each end called the ramus. The rami are divided into two different processes: ____ process and _____ process.
mandible
Condyloid process
Coronoid process
_______ process—Also called mandibular condyle, located posterior on the ramus下颌支and forms the head of the mandible.
Condyloid process
_____ process—Located anterior of the condyle, and provides attachment for the temporal’s muscle, which helps lift the mandible to close the mouth.
Coronoid process
_____ process— supports the teeth of the mandibular arch.
Alveolar process
It also referred to as the chin and is located at the midline of the mandible.
Mental protuberance 心理突起
Located on the facial surfaces of the mandible on both the right and left sides, just below the second premolars. This opening contains the mental nerve and blood vessels.
Mental foramen
_____ Located near the center of each ramus on the medial side (inside), through this opening passes blood vessels and the interior alveolus nerve, which supply the roots of the mandibular teeth.
Mandibular foramen
Bones of the ear: three small bones named the ____, ____ and ____.
malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
The vertebral column consists of ____ movable or true vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx or tail bone.
24 true vertebrae
The _______ is a hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the passage for the spinal cord.
vertebral foramen
There are _____ cervical vertebrae in the neck. There are ____ vertebrae in the thoracic region. There are ____ lumbar vertebrae. The _____ is the triangular bone immediately below the lumbar vertebrae. It is composed of ____ separate vertebrae that gradually fuse together between 18 and 30 years of age.
seven cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic vertebrae
five lumbar vertebrae
sacrum, five
The first set of ribs is attached to the ______, a flat irregular bone atop the sternum.
manubrium 柄
The first ___ pairs of ribs are called true ribs. The remaining ____ pairs are called false ribs. The last ___ rib pairs, also known as floating ribs, have no cartilaginous attachments to the sternum. The _____ process, located at the inferior aspect of the sternum.
seven
five
two
xiphoid process
There are seven cervical vertebrae in the neck. The first is called the ____ and resembles a bony ring. It supports the head. The second is the highly specialized _____.
atlas
axis
Each hand, how many Carpal, Metacarpal and Phalanges?
Carpal (8), Metacarpal (5), Phalanges (14) (each hand).
Each foot, how many Tarsus, Metatarsus and Phalanges?
Tarsus (7), Metatarsus 跖骨(5), Phalanges (14)
The patella is a small ____-shaped bone overlying the knee joint. Bones like the patella that develop within a tendon are known as ____ bones.
oval-shape
sesamoid bone 籽骨
The innominate bone is a large, irregularly shaped bone composed of three parts: ___, ___ and ___. In children these three parts are separate bones, but in adults they are firmly united to form a cuplike structure, called the ____,
the ilium, ischium, and pubis
acetabulum 髋臼
What is also referred as the chin?
Mentalis
Mental protuberance
Both A and B
Protuberance
Mental protuberance精神突起
What is an oval depression in the temporal bone?
Articular eminence
Condyle
Glenoid fossa
eminence articular
Glenoid fossa
What muscle raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin?
zygomaticus major
mentalis颏
orbicularis oris
both A and C
mentalis颏
How many cervical vertebrae and which are the two most important parts?
-7: the first is the atlas; a bony ring that supports the head, and the second is the axis; which permits the head to move from side to side.
What is peristalsis?
Mechanical digestion occurs when food is chewed, swallowed, and propelled by wave-like motion
What is the gallbladder?
Pear-shaped sac, usually stained dark green by the bile it contains
What is the ethmoid bone?
The ethmoid bone is situated in front of the sphenoid bone in the front part of the cranium.
Where is the uvula located?
roof of the mouth
back portion of the soft palate
front portion of the soft palate
near the soft palate
back portion of the soft palate
Which gland is located inside the cheek?
buccal cavity
buccinators
parotid
none of the above
parotid
WHAT VEIN SOMETIMES USED FOR IV INJECTION, ORIGINATES ON THE INNER ASPECT OF THE FOOT OR ANKLE?
GREAT SAPHENOUS
MEDIAL CUBITAL
CEPHALIC
BRACHIAL
GREAT SAPHENOUS
RATTLING SOUNDS IN THE THROAT DUE TO PARTIAL OBSTRUCTION, ALSO A DRY COURSE RALE IN THE BRONCHIAL TUBES WOULD BE TERMED?
STERTOROUS RESPIRATIONS
RHONCHUS
APNEA
BRADYPNEA
RHONCHUS
What chronic disorder of the pituitary gland or hypothalimus which is a result of a deficiancy of vasopresent also called the antidiuretic hormone or ADH?
Diabetes Insipidus
6-1. When the body is in the anatomical position, the thumbs point?
1. Medially
2. Laterally
3. Anteriorly
4. Posteriorly
2. Laterally
The _____ (commonly called the “collar bone”) lies nearly horizontally above the first rib and is shaped like a flat letter S.
clavicle
The ____ is a triangular bone that lies in the upper part of the back on both sides, between the second and seventh ribs, forming the posterior portion of the pectoral girdle.
scapula
The _____ is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone.
humerus
The humerus anatomical portions include a head called the _____; and the ____ is the main part of the humerus; and the distal end, which includes the prominence (called an _____) and theses surfaces articulate with the bones of the forearm.
glenoid fossa
shaft
epicondyle
6-14. The concavity into which the head of the humerus articulates is called the?
1. Scapula
2. Acetabulum
3. Glenoid fossa
4. Epicondyle
Glenoid fossa
6-62. Calcium levels in the blood are
controlled by which of the following
hormones?
1. Thyroxin
2. Vasopressin
3. Thyroid
4. Parathormone
4. Parathormone
6-80. What is the approximate total capacity
of the adult bladder?
1. 250 ml
2. 300 ml
3. 600 ml
4. 750 ml
3. 600 ml
6-74. The enzymatic action of amylase results in the chemical breakdown of ______?
1. fats to fatty acids
2. starches to fats
3. starches to complex sugars
4. proteins to complex sugars
3. starches(淀粉) to complex sugars

amylase淀粉酶
6-73. The conversion of mechanical impulses (sound waves) to neural impulses that can be interpreted by the brain is a function of the ______?
1. Endolymph
2. Semicircular canals
3. Organ of Corti
4. Fenestra ovalis
3. Organ of Corti 尔蒂
6-70. By what process is three-dimensional vision produced?
1. Accommodation
2. Convergence
3. Refraction
4. Stimulation
2. Convergence 收敛
6-16. The prominence easily felt on the inner and outer aspects of the ankle are called?
1. Medial and lateral malleolus
2. Medial and lateral condyle
3. Greater and lesser turberosities
4. Greater and lesser trochanters
1. Medial and lateral malleolus 内踝
What are the three PRINCIPAL VENOUS SYSTEMS?
pulmonary, portal, and systemic.
What is the pulmonary system?
The pulmonary system is composed of four vessels, two from each lung, which empty into the left atrium. These are the only veins in the body that carry freshly oxygenated blood.
What is the portal system?
The portal system consists of the veins that drain venous blood from the abdominal part of the digestive tract the spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder, but not the lower rectum and deliver it to the liver.
What is the systemic system?
The systemic system is divided into the deep and superficial veins.
The superficial veins lie immediately under the skin, draining the skin and superficial structures.
The deep veins, usually located in the muscle or deeper layers, drain the large muscle masses and various other organs.
6-36. The venous system that carries digested materials from the intestinal tract is called the?
1. Portal
2. Pulmonary
3. Abdominal
4. Pelvic
1. Portal
Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by a ____, or network, of blood vessels in the _____ of the brain.
plexus 神经丛
central ventricles 中央心室